**Abstracts of Journal Papers (2017-)
**Abstracts of Journal Papers (1980-1989) (1990-1999)

(2000-2009) (2010-2013) (2014-2016)

2018 2017** **

**2018
**

**J52:** **Validation** **of** **Concept** **of** **Optimal** **Mass** **in** **Child-
ren and Adults — The Seventh-Generation Solution
of Childhood Obesity
**

Karachi 75270, Pakistan

*Biology and Biotechnology*, **15 (4)**, 2018, 613-638

---------------------------------------------------

Childhood obesity is a result of difference between

intake and expenditure of energy, disturbing initial

steady state and forming a new steady state at a

higher level, resulting in increased body-fat storage. To avoid obesity, child needs to balance tissue synthesis,
responsible for picking-up height, with fat storage, responsible for putting-on
weight (mass). During 2002-2012, child growth
and obesity were modeled, introducing the terms, estimated-adult *BMI*,
pseudo-gain of height/mass and energy-channelization (co-existence of wasting
and tallness/stunting and obesity).
During 2013-2017, our group put forward first- to sixth-generation
solutions of childhood obesity, which included new a definition of childhood
obesity. This paper unveils
seventh-generation solution, placing height-percentile-based-optimal mass and *BMI*-based-optimal
mass on equal footing by defining modified status (pertaining-to-mass) in terms
of that optimal mass, which is closer to net mass. Similarly,
current-age-mid-parental height and current-age-army-cutoff height are treated
on equal footing by defining modified status (pertaining-to-height) in terms of
that current-age height, which is closer to recorded height. This leads to a modification of definitions of
‘instantaneous obesity/wasting’ and ‘true obesity/wasting’. Polar-coördinate
representation of nutritional-status classification is expanded to 10
categories, viz. energy-channelization III (puberty-induced energy-channelization),
obesity dominated over-nutrition, tallness dominated over-nutrition, tallness
dominated energy-channelization I, wasting dominated energy-channelization I,
stunting dominated energy-channelization II, obesity dominated
energy-channelization II, stunting dominated under-nutrition, wasting dominated
under-nutrition, acute malnutrition. This paper gives the method of
constructing Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap 2.1, which includes
‘away-from-normality index’ and ‘polar angle’ in addition to build assigned
from scaled percentiles, modified as well as descriptive statuses
(pertaining-to-height) and (pertaining-to-mass). Vector-Roadmap 2.1 proposes 6
month-wise height management target values as well as mass management target
ranges, these ranges may render the task of optimal-mass management easier. The
authors have expanded lifestyle adjustment, diet and exercise plans to achieve
the recommended targets. Vector-Roadmap 2.1 is generated from height and mass
measurements obtained to least counts of 0.005 *cm* and 0.005 *kg*,
respectively. Computations are performed using Extended CDC Growth Charts and
Tables containing percentiles in the range 0.01 to 99.99. Rigorous mathematical
arguments are employed to prove true obesity implying instantaneous obesity and
instantaneous wasting implying true wasting are proved using rigorous
mathematical arguments, with illustrative examples for each condition. Full Text (7** ^{th}**-Generation Solution of
Childhood Obesity) PDF

Additional
File**:** Color Coding of Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap 2.1 PDF

Related Paper**:** Integration
of *BMI*-based-Optimal Mass and Height-Percentile-based-Optimal Mass PDF

Related
Presentation**:** Streamlining Various Definitions of Childhood Obesity PDF

Related
Presentation**:** US Childhood Obesity Problem — Solutions Proposed in
Pakistan PDF

J51: Solar-Eclipse Observations in Pakistan: Health and Safety Considerations

*Work done at***:** *The NGDS Pilot Project, PO Box 8423,
Karachi 75270,**Pakistan*

**Kamal SA**, *The Sky-IJPEHSAS*, **2**, 2018, 38-45

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------**
**This paper addresses health issues associated with the observations of
solar eclipses, in particular, eclipse retinopathy due to observation of
partial-solar eclipses without proper protection to eyes. Partial- and
total-solar-eclipse expeditions conducted by the author during 1995-2008 are
described. Violation of Kepler’s second law of planetary motion was witnessed
during the 1995 total-solar-eclipse expedition and the same was confirmed
during the 1999 total-solar-eclipse expedition. During the 1995 expedition,
seconds before the end of totality, the black circular disc changed into an
elliptical shape of eccentricity 0.26, with the major axis vertical to horizon.
Safe viewing of eclipse is recommended through special glasses made from 2
layers of completely exposed ASA 100 film as well as UV-cutoff glasses. Full Text PDF

Related Additional Information**:**
Solar-Eclipse Expeditions in Pakistan

** **

**J50: Overcoming Vitamin-D Deficiency in Male
Gymnasts during Preteen Years
**

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Related
Public-Interest Article**:** Helpful Hints for Overcoming Vitamin-D
Deficiency PDF

**2017**

**J49:
Integration of BMI-based-Optimal Mass and Height-Percentile-based-Optimal
Mass to Propose the Sixth-Generation Solution of Childhood Obesity**

**The Sixth-Generation Solution** of childhood-obesity problem

*Work done at***:** *The NGDS Pilot Project, PO Box 8423,
Karachi 75270,**Pakistan*

**Kamal SA**, *International Journal of Biology** and Biotechnology*, **14 (4)**, 2017, 485-502

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------**
**Childhood obesity is a manifestation of discrepancy between energy
intake and expenditure, which disturbs the original steady state causing to
form a fresh steady state at an elevated level, with the consequence of
increased body-fat storage. Balance must be established between tissue
synthesis, resulting in gain of height, and fat storage, resulting in gain in
mass, in order to avert childhood obesity. Many definitions of childhood
obesity are available. During the last five years, our group put forward the
First- to the Fifth-Generation Solutions of Childhood Obesity. The last one
consisted of a mathematical definition of childhood obesity, related to the
logical definition. This paper proposes a range for 6 monthly mass-management
targets instead of single values, by fitting two parabolic curves, both
originating at the age of the most-rent checkup. One of these curves meets
tangentially, at the age of 10

Additional
File 1**:** Compliance with Ethical and Human-Right Standards PDF

Additional
File 2: Height, Mass and MUAC Managements PDF

Related Paper**:** In Search of
a Definition of Childhood Obesity PDF

Related Paper**:** Growth-and-Obesity
Vector-Roadmaps of the Pakistani Children PDF

** **

**J48: ****Psychological
Testing, Physical Examination and Fitness Testing of Primary-School Students
for Participation in Gymnastic Activities**** **

*Work done at***:** *The NGDS Pilot Project, PO Box 8423, Karachi
75270,**Pakistan*

**Kamal SA**, Azeemi
HI, Khan SR, *Pamukkale Journal ofSport Sciences*, **8 (2)**, 2017,
15-40

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The authors highlight significance of fitness testing,
psychological and physical examinations for primary-school students, who wish
to participate in gymnastic activities. The main purpose of pre-participation
examination is safety of potential gymnasts, team members, coaches and staff.
The prime function of end-of-term evaluation is performance assessment and
possible improvement from the last term. Taking the example of a girl, who is
participating in gymnastics, this work illustrates use of Growth-and-Obesity
Roadmap in determining suitability for inclusion in gymnastic team, focusing on
nutritional status, estimated-adult height and build of student. Build is
computed using scaled percentiles adapted for the Pakistani children, which are
generated from CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United
States) percentiles by fitting a parabolic curve. Mathematical-statistical
definitions of normal, early, delayed, excessively delayed and precarious
puberty are proposed. Approximate Tanner scores have been assigned to
prepubertal, peripubertal, pubertal, adolescent and adult stages. Full Text PDF

Additional
File 1**:** Checkup Protocols PDF

Additional File
2: Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmaps of G Family PDF

Additional File
3: Calculations using Scaled Percentiles PDF

Related
Presentation**:** Research Empowering Teaching for Community Outreach PDF

Related Presentation**:**
Fitness for Primary-School Children PDF

** **

**J47: Medical Criteria for induction into the Armed Forces of
Pakistan: Cutoff Heights for Still-Growing Youth
**

319-331

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

*Objective***:** To propose objective criteria of cutoff heights for still-growing
youth by examining current criteria and identifying their short comings

*Study Design***:** Observational study

*Place and Duration of Study***:** Initiated in 1998 in
schools run by the Armed Forces of Pakistan; a civilian school added in 2011

*Subjects and Methods***:** Primary-school students’ heights and masses were measured, to least
counts of 0.1 *cm* (1998-2011); 0.01 *cm* (2012-2015); 0.005 *cm*
(2016 to date) and 0.5 *kg* (1998-2011); 0.01 *kg* (2012-2015); 0.005
*kg* (2016 to date), respectively, during morning hours, implementing
standardized protocols (ethical guidelines followed, students undressed to
underpants, equipments calibrated daily, measurer reproducibility documented),
and modeled to compute estimated-adult heights, estimated-adult masses, height
and mass percentiles, optimal masses, estimated-adult *BMI*s (body-mass
indices). In order to deal with extreme cases, CDC Growth Tables were extended
using mathematical-statistical techniques to include 0.01^{th}, 0.1^{th},
1st, 99^{th}, 99.9^{th} and 99.99^{th} percentiles.
Scaled percentiles of height and mass, suitable for the Pakistani population,
were generated from CDC percentiles of height and mass by fitting parabolic
curves with the condition that the 40^{th} CDC percentile (of
height/mass) corresponds to 50^{th} scaled percentile (of height/mass).

*Results***:** Data of 1185 students were analyzed. Mean age was (8.08 ± 2.23) years.
Using Extended CDC Growth Charts, height percentiles corresponding to cutoff
heights for induction into the Armed Forces of Pakistan were determined as 2.72
(for males) and 19.36 (for females).

*Conclusion***:** Induction criteria for
still-growing youth (boys less than 21-year old and girls less than 19-year
old) should be based on percentiles rather than measured heights. Full Text PDF

Related Presentation**:**
Mathematics in the Life Sciences PDF

**J46: Possible Validation of Mathematical Definition of Childhood
Obesity based on Anthropometric Data Collected during 1998-2013
**

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Childhood obesity appears, when there develops a
discrepancy between energy intake and expenditure, causing to disturb the
original steady state and formation of a fresh steady state at a higher level,
which results in increased body-fat storage. Balance needs to be created
between tissue synthesis (height gain) and fat storage (mass gain) in order to
avoid children becoming obese. There are a number of definitions of childhood
obesity given by various researchers, notable among them are those working with
the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG). During 2013-2017, the First- to
the Fifth-Generation Solutions of Childhood Obesity were proposed by our group.
The last one consisted of a mathematical definition of
childhood obesity. It related the logical definition, ‘a child is
considered to be obese if the incumbent is recommended to lose net weight
during a course of the next 6 months based on the youngster’s mass-management
goals generated from Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap’ to the mathematical
criterion, ‘a child is classified as obese if the difference between the
youngster’s mass percentile (at the most-recent checkup) and reference
percentile exceeds +15’. This paper explores the proposed mathematical
definition by applying this criterion to anthropometric data collected during
15 years ending in 2013. Data were investigated by changing the value of
difference around +15. Best results were obtained when the parameter was set
equal to +15. Out of 1183 children (302 males, 881 females), 124 had the
difference greater than +15. Among these 124 children, 38 showed true obesity
according to the logical definition. Full Text PDF

Additional
File 1**:** Checkup Protocols PDF

Additional
File 2**:** Measurement of Height and Mass PDF
(step-by-step protocols illustrated through labeled pictures of procedures as
well as common mistakes condensed from Manual for Obtaining
Anthropometric Measurements PDF)

Additional
File 3: Detailed Calculations of M. E.'s Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap PDF

Additional
File 4: Lifestyle Adjustment, Diet and Exercise Plans PDF

Additional File 5: Algorithm PDF

** **

**J45: In Search of a Definition of Childhood Obesity**

**The Fifth-Generation Solution** of childhood-obesity problem

*Work done at***:** *The NGDS Pilot Project, PO Box 8423,
Karachi 75270, **Pakistan*

**Kamal SA**, *International Journal of Biology** and Biotechnology*, **14 (1)**, 2017,
49-67

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Childhood obesity
is manifested when there develops a discrepancy between intake and output of
energy, disturbing the original steady state and formation of a fresh steady
state at a higher level, resulting in increased body-fat storage. There needs
to be a delicate balance established between tissue synthesis (height gain) and
fat storage (mass gain) in order to prevent obesity. Various definitions of
childhood obesity have been proposed. During 1995-2001, Poskitt, representing
European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG), tried to deal with this issue. In a
1995 paper, she expressed concern over lack of childhood-obesity definition. In
2000, she mentioned that the concept of relative body-mass index (*BMI*)
had been generally accepted. In 2001, she observed that *BMI* could not be
considered as offering the ‘best’ definition, although it might be ‘useful’ and
‘practical’. In 2000 Cole and co-workers linked childhood obesity to
adult-obesity-cutoff point (*BMI* 30 *kg*/*m*^{2}). In a
2010 paper, Flegal and co-workers gave 3 *BMI*-for-age categories**:**
‘normal’, ‘intermediate’ and ‘high’. The first one *most unlikely*,
whereas the last one *most likely*, to have high adiposity. In a 2011
paper, Rolland-Cachera and co-workers, on behalf of ECOG, defined 3 cutoffs of *BMI*,
constituting four ranges**:** ‘thin’, ‘normal’, ‘overweight’ and ‘obese’.
During the same year, Zhao and Grant defined obesity as excess of body fat. In
a 2015 paper, Al-Gindan and co-workers expressed the opinion that most
national-survey analyses equating *BMI* in excess of 30 *kg*/*m*^{2}
with ‘obesity’ led to survey-data misinterpretation. This paper puts forward
the point-of-view that ‘overweight’ must be differentiated from ‘overfat’. One
needs a definition based, solely, on measurement of mass, not measurement of
fat, which is difficult to obtain in a reproducible manner. Childhood obesity
has been defined as the condition in which a youngster is required to shed off
net mass at the end of 6-*month* period as compared to current mass based
on ‘Growth-and-Obesity
Vector-Roadmap’ recommendations. In this work, ‘*BMI*-based-optimal
mass’ is compared with ‘height-percentile-based-optimal
mass’ and mathematical relationship is proposed for losing net mass within
the next 6 *months*. Full Text (5** ^{th}**-Generation
Solution of Childhood Obesity) PDF

Additional File 1: Checkup Protocols PDF

Additional File 2: Detailed Calculations of M. E.'s Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap PDF

Additional File
3: Graphical Representation and Color Scheme PDF

Related
Presentation**:** Streamlining Various Definitions of Childhood Obesity PDF

__
__Abstracts
of Journal Papers (1980-1989) (1990-1999) (2000-2009) (2010-2013) (2014-2016)

Updated:

½ Summary of
Accomplishments and Honors PDF ½ Biodata ½ Publications ½ Contact Information ½ |

Best viewed with 800 x 600 screen resolution using Microsoft Internet Explorer. Copyright 1998-2019. Professor Dr. Syed Arif Kamal