Abstracts of Conference Papers
(20002009)
Abstracts of Conference Papers
(19701979) (19801989) (19901999)
(20102013) (2014)
2009 2008 2006
2005 2004 2003 2002
2009
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI,
University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, National Conference on
Physics and the World of Today,
in
memory of Prof. Dr. Mohummed Rafi and
Prof. Dr. Mohummed Razi Hussain,
National Center for Physics and Depart
ment of Physics, University
of Karachi,
2009, abstract#1,
pp 910 (Prof. Dr.
Muhammed Rafi and Prof. Dr. Muhammed
Razi Hussain memorial lecture)

This paper started with the
history of great scientific experiments, which served to
develop the content of a theory (decompose a simple phenomenon, demonstrate
underlying unity within apparent variety, find hidden mechanism of a known
effect, provide existence evidence), elaborate the formal aspects of method
(decide between rival hypotheses, exploit an accident, explore the
characteristics of a naturallyoccurring process, find the form of a law,
inductively, interpret null results, use models to simulate processes) and
establish techniques (determine accuracy and care in manipulation, show power
and versatility of apparatus), and, then, covered the significance of proper
experimental design (using mathematical and statistical tools) in an
experimental study. A number of papers submitted in highimpact journals do not
get accepted because they lack proper experimental strategy. The main reasons of inefficient experiments (resulting in excessive cost or time delay in reaching
a decision) and poor experiments
(resulting in wrong decisions) are bad engineering decisions by setting vague
objectives for projects, inappropriate statistics courses taught in the
colleges and in the universities, incorrect decisions based on insufficient
data and lack of training in the strategy of experimenting. The paper, also, dealt with the concepts of
‘calibration’ (converting undesired outputs to desired outputs using a
functional relationship, preferably linear, between the two sets of outputs — e.
g., converting mercury height to temperature in a thermometer, converting
angular deviation to ampéré or its fraction in galvanometer), ‘synchronization’ (of watches means at a
particular instant the two watches read the same time), ‘sensitivity’ (of a scientific is the reading given by the instrument,
when it measures a unit of physical quantity, i. e., current, voltage,
charge, length, etc. — increasing the distance of scale from the
galvanometer, having lamp and scale arrangement, should increase its sensitivity), ‘reliability’(of equipment is [1 – Probability
of breakdown] — a brand name is expensive because one has
reliability data available on that product, a ‘guarantee’ covers the breakdown and
the replacement costs based on mathematicalstatistical models) and ‘tolerance’ (the ability of an instrument to
withstand shock, impact, intense radiation, variations of temperature or other
distorting or damaging forces) as well as types of errors and ways to deal with
them. When one handles raw data similarities are
shown in mean (measure of central tendency) and differences in deviation (measure of dispersion). An
appropriate measure of dispersion to use is standard
deviation, when the data are normally distributed (large sample size). If
that is not the case, one should employ mean
deviation. ‘Accuracy (A)’ and ‘precision (P)’ were
redefined as (modified after our previous work — s_{R} is obtained upon replacing arithmetic
mean by the reference value in
the expression of s, standard deviation):
Worked Example (PDF). It was suggested that Physics Laboratory Course
might be used to inculcate creative thinking and critical analysis in students and the course might become the first
training ground of an experimentalresearch physicist, if the experiments
encouraged unconventional thinking. The experiments discussed included (a) study of variation of intensity with
distance from multiple sources (point, line, laser) using photocell, (b) appearance (disappearance) of
Newton’s rings if planoconvex lens was moved away from (towards) the sodium
light source (study of fringe movement using edgebased algorithm to be
included for advanced undergraduate laboratory) and (c) height and curvature maps of solid objects (cylinder, sphere,
cone, wedge) using moiré fringe topography and rasterstereography (edgebased moiré and
edgebased
raster to
quantify infinitesimal movements might be suitable for graduate laboratory).
This approach of close coördination between a theorist and an experimentalist, also, sets objectives for the former to model physical
phenomena to levels of accuracy compatible with experimental techniques
available at that epoch of time. This lecture is dedicated to the loving memory
of Prof. Dr. Muhammed Rafi and Prof. Dr. Muhammed Razi Hussain, both of them
taught me during my undergraduate studies. Prof. Rafi was my mentor, who motivated
me to achieve excellence in research, teaching and admininstration.
Prof. Hussain was more of a friend and an associate, who gave me good advice at
times of hardship. My life has been deeply touched by both. The topic was
chosen by the speaker because both Prof. Rafi and Prof. Hussain were
experimental physicists. Extended Abstract PDF
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan
Kamal SA, the ThirtyFourth International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs, Activity III: Biophotonics, Photodynamics and Microscopy, National Center for Physics, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2009

This paper covered the activities of bioimging group of
University of Karachi spanning over a period of 30 years, focusing on
nonionizing, noninvasive, noncontact, photogrammetric techniques — moiré
fringe topography and rastersterography, which provided permanent records
height (third dimension) and curvature maps, respectively, of the human
subject/test object under study (Figures 1 and 2). The work started in 1979 by developing a shadowtypemoiré system for the
detection of scoliosis. The author developed methods to determine the Cobb angle from measurements
performed on moiré topographs (and its generalization in 3D, the Asr Angle). In the context of 3Dstatic model of the human spinal column (put forward by author
in 1982, complete version published in 1996),
profile of spinal column in three dimensions was generated by moiré photograph
of back, used to study posture, providing insight into the anatomical
basis of back pain. A simultaneous recording from moiré and
raster, using selective optical filtering, gave height and curvature maps of
spinal column (thus generating 3D profile of spinal column) in each phase of
human gait (developed in 1996), which provided clues to many orthopedic
and neurological disorders. A 3Ddynamic model related spinal column
in each phase to the next through edgebased algorithm. Edgebased moiré and edgebased
raster allowed studies of changes in height and curvature maps of human back
during a gait cycle. In the area of sportsperformance
analysis, unwanted motion in the sagittal plane, by a gymnast
performing on vault, could be monitored using edgebased moiré. In the
discipline of speech therapy, movements and curvatures of lips and mouth
muscles could be studied using edgebased moiré and raster. In the field of biometrics
and security technologies, a multilevel screening
system was proposed (in 2008) to establish identity with a high level of
sensitivity (top level) and specificity
(bottom level) employing dynamic stereophotogrammetric techniques. These
techniques might, also, be utilized to study 3D structure of macromolecules, significant in
biology, by making their metallic replica. Preliminary work was done on the
flagella of salmonella typhus at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (New
York). Extended Abstract PDF
C75: Avoiding Infinities
from the Lorentz and the Poincaré Transformations
Work done
at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, UniversityRoad, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan
Kamal SA, the Fourth Symposium on Computational
Complexities, Innovations and Solutions (CCIS 2009), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology,
Abbottabad, NWFP, Pakistan, 2009, p 16 (invited paper) — nominated by Vice Chancellor, University of Karachi

From the historical
pointofview, this paper gave history of conceptual development of relativity
as well as mathematical formulation of Lorentz transformations. Contrary to the
popular belief, giving credit of all contributions in special relativity to
Albert Einstein, the paper put into perspective the fundamental conceptual
contributions of Muslim scientists, e. g., space and time, relative and
absolute, long before, Einstein presented his theory. One year before the
publication of Einstein’s paper, Poincaré (1904) enunciated the principle of
relativity. Also, complete mathematical framework was available through works
of Voigt (1887) and Lorentz (1904). Long before that IbnéSina discussed space
and time in his RisalaéTabiyyat (Journal of Physics). Nasiruddin Tusi
(1238 Iranian Year) say that time ascribes everything and, therefore, something
is first and something is last relative to time. Time recording of events
(causality) occupies an important place in modern relativity theory. Tusi,
further, observes that the entire universe is ascribed by space and in this
connection, something is is exposed and something is hidden relative to space.
In addition, he comments that space and time are not complete in themselves. In
theory of relaticvity space and time are not considered as separate things, but
time is considered as a coördinate like space coördinates. Sadruddin Sheerazi,
in AsfaréArbaa (Four Journeys), say about the doubt of Fakruddin Raazi
(OuoonulHikmat — Springs of Knowledge) that Behmenyar mentioned this
doubt and then, himself, refuted it. Behmenyar thinks that if the existance of
motion is disproved, then it is that motion, which is called 'absolute motion'
is not, externally, present.He argues thatabsolute motion has not any such form
in the external as that of thinggs, which are stationary. One may notice that
even Lorentz adhered to the notion of absolute rest and absolute motion. In his
paper, ‘Zur Electrodynamik bewegter Korper’ (On the Electrodynamics of Moving
Bodies), published in 1905, Albert Einstein combined these existing conceptual
and mathematical formulations into an integrated and a unified approach,
without giving reference to these contributions. Herman Minkowski formulated
the relativity theory in terms of a fourdimensionalvectorfield formulation.
As early as 1911,it was shown that the assumption of existance of an invariant
velocity was not necessary for the derivation of Lorentz transformations.
Recami and Mignani (1974) generalized special relativity and set the relavant
postulates in the form: (i) spacetime is homogeneous and space is
isotropic, (ii) principle of relativity — physical laws of mechanics and
electromagnetism are required to be covariant, when passing from an inertial
frame to another frame in reclinear uniform relative motion and (iii)
principle of retarded causality (equivalent to Dirac, Stuckelberg, Feynman and
Sudershan reinterpretation principle) — negativeenergy particles traveling
forward in time do not exist. From only the postulates (i) and (ii)
(without intervention of any asumption about the invariant character of the
light speed) the remaining principles of special relativity may, actually, be
deduced, such as the linearity of transformations and the existance of an
invariant squared speed. The Lorentz transformations are spacetimevectorfield
formulations in 4 dimensions, relating coördinates of the primed and the
unprimed frames. This paper introduced ScaledPoincaré Transformations,
which avoided infinities that appeared due to denominator vanishing in space
and time transformations as velocity approached the velocity of light.Extended Abstract PDF
C74: Gauss’ Law: Choice of the Gaussian Surface and Form of the
ElectricField Vector
Work done
at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan
Kamal SA, Workshop on Physics, Government College, Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan,
2009 (invited paper)

Gauss’ law is one of the fundamental laws of electromagnetism, which is, primarily, used to determine the electricfield vector, if the system possesses certain symmetries. This is possible, provided a proper gaussian surface is selected, according to the following criteria:
a) 
Field point (where the electricfield vector
needs to be determined) must lie on the gaussian surface. 
b) 
It should be a closed surface (welldefined
interior and exterior) — most common types of gaussian surfaces are
sphere, cylinder and box. 
c) 
It could be a real (coinciding with a physical
boundary) or an imaginary surface — for example, spherical surface with
center at origin could lie inside a spherical charge distribution of uniform
density (imaginary) or the boundary (real). 
d) 
It should be chosen considering symmetries of the
system, as suggested by strong
Noether’s theorem — for example, spheres, cylinders or boxes
are chosen for spherical, line or surface charge distributions, respectively. 
e) 
Direction
of the electricfield vector should either be tangential or normal to any
chosen section of surface — for a uniform line charge distribution, a
cylindrical surface is selected as a gaussian surface. The electricfield
vector is normal everywhere on the curved surface and tangential on both
plane surfaces. 
f) 
Magnitude
of the electricfield vector should be constant throughout each section of
surface, allowing one to take it outside the integral — for example, spherical
surface with center at origin is, generally, chosen as gaussian surface for a
spherical charge distribution of uniform density. Magnitude of electric
field, being a function only of radial coördinate (distance from center of
distribution), is constant over this surface. 
Examples were worked out for computing electric fields
generated by (i) an infinite plane charge sheet, with constant
surfacecharge density and (ii) an infinite line charge, with constant
linecharge density, with special emphasis to determine the form of
electricfield vector. Similarities and differences of electricity and
magnetism as well as electricity and gravitation were highlighted. An
expression of Gauss’ law for gravitation was presented and illustrated with
computation of gravitational field inside and outside earth. In the context of
Ampéré circuital law, line integral of magnetic flux density is to be computed
along a closed curve. Criteria for choosing this curve, to most efficiently
determine the magnetic field, were, also, be mentioned. Extended Abstract PDF
C73: The Integrated Educational System: a PreUniversity
Educational System for the Third Millennium
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan
Kamal SA, the
Sindh Educational Conference, the Jamia Millia Government College of
Education, Karachi, Pakistan, 2009,
abstract#1, p 1 (keynote lecture)

“The Integrated Educational System” was described, which aimed to cultivate habits of creative thinking and critical
analysis by providing highlymotivated students sufficient depth
as well as adequate breadth of the core and the related subjects so that they
could make informed, independent decisions under stressful situations. The
curriculum integrates various aspects of curriculum development (why to teach –
philosophy; what to teach – contents; how to teach – pedagogical techniques) in
such way that the student is educated to become a manager of resources
of the universe (not a thief) and should know relationship with Allah,
self and environment What to learn is the main factor in TRAINING. A
trained person “knows” the techniques, which can be repeated under standard
situations. How to learn is the essence of EDUCATION. An educated person
“knows”, “can explain” and “can apply” the concepts and the techniques.
Emphasis is placed on concept building (through debates, discussion sessions,
activities) and technique developing (smart approaches to problem solving). Attempts of patchwork from foreign curricula have
failed many times, because they do not take into account of the complete
picture. It is, therefore, mandatory to
prepare an integrated curriculum. The
curriculum needs
to be prepared in the following stages:
a) 
Outline preparation (to link with knowledge obtained
in other disciplines and a systematic planning of gradual buildingup of
concepts and problemsolving skills, the chart contains the level, the
concept, the activity/the experiment to reinforce this concept, the reference
and the philosophy behind teaching this concept) 
b) 
Textbook, workbook and lab manual preparation 
c) 
Video lecture and demonstration series 
d) 
Interactive software series 
e) 
Testing and evaluation 
The curriculum spanning over the entire school period (KG  Intermediate Level)
is divided into three disciplines: Sciences, Liberal Arts, Health and Growth.
Equal emphasis is given to moral upbringing, intellectual upbringing and
physical upbringing. Yearly updated textbooks/workbooks coupled with the latest
teaching and evaluation techniques promise to make the students “Muslims” to be
able to tackle the challenges of this Information Age. Teachers'training
programs and parents'education programs reinforcing the concepts and
elaborating the pedagogical skills must accompany the curriculum outline. Evaluation and appraisal of this system is based
on speciallydesigned developmental examinations of the
child, written examinations, projects, quizzes, parental comments, teachers'
suggestions and expert review of videotaped lessons. The curriculum must prepare
the students to enter BS programs of topranking universities of the world, for
example, Cambridge, Harvard, MIT, by being properly interfaced with the university
curricula. Extended Abstract PDF
2008
C72: The MultiStage Lambert Scheme
for Steering a SatelliteLaunch Vehicle (SLV)
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan
Kamal SA, Proceedings of the
Twelfth IEEE International Multitopic Conference (IEEE INMIC 2008), Edited by Anis MK, Khan MK,
Zaidi SJH, Bahria University, Karachi,
Pakistan, 2008, pp 294300 (invited paper)

The determination of an orbit, having a specified transfer time
(timeofflight) and connecting two position vectors, frequently referred to as
the Lambert problem, is fundamental in astrodynamics. Of the many techniques
existing for solving this twobody, twopoint, timeconstrained orbital
boundaryvalue problem, Gauss' and Lagrange's methods were combined to obtain
an elegant algorithm based on Battin's work. This algorithm included detection
of crossrange error. A variable TYPE, introduced in the
transfertime equation, was flipped, to generate the inverseLambert
scheme. In this paper,
an innovative adaptive scheme was presented, which was
called “the MultiStageLambert Scheme”. This scheme proposed a design of
autopilot, which achieved the predecided destination position and velocity
vectors for a multistage rocket, when each stage was detached from the main
vehicle after it burned out, completely. Full Text PDF
C71: Role of Mathematics in the Sports Sciences and Technologies
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan
Kamal SA, the ThirtyFifth All
Pakistan Science Conference, University of Karachi,
2008, abstract # 72, p 75; Karachi University Journal of Sciernce 36(1&2),
2008, 35

With the competitive and the commercial nature of sports, as a means to promote
international coöperation, collaboration and manage conflicts, the nations,
having superiority in sciences and technologies, are investing in sports and
health sciences and technologies. Mathematics plays a vital role in developing
and improving sports activities. This paper discussed 3 areas of application (sports
medicine, kinesiology and sportsperformance analysis), for
which the infrastructure, the facilities and the human resources are available
at University of Karachi, and students are engaged in graduate course work and
research. In the area of sports medicine, our group has developed
indigenous instruments and methods for measurement of height, weight,
midupperarm circumference and shoulder width, employing ideas from
mathematics, physics and civil engineering, with mathematical and statistical
models for reliability of data. To test these instruments and techniques, our
team collected data on over 2500 children between the ages of 511
years. Our heightmeasurement system was adapted by Tawana Pakistan team. Using
techniques of numerical analysis, methods were developed to generate detailed
growth profile of an athletic child, indicating stunting and wasting/obesity as
well as a prediction of adult height and weight, which became very important,
when one selected athletes to train them as basketball players, wrestlers or
gymnasts. Skeletal examination of school athlete, with a focus on
detection of trunk deformities, in particular scoliosis, must be mandatory in
the age range 811 years. In the Syed Firdous Growth and Imaging Laboratory a
lightweight, full body moiré fringe topography setup, developed locally, is
being used to screen for trunk deformities (scoliosis, kyphosis and
lordosis). The author has developed methods to determine Cobb angle from measurements
performed on moiré topographs (and its generalization in 3D, the Asr Angle). Heart size and
condition were determined, without expensive monitoring equipment, using geometric model of heart put forward by author in
2002. In the area of kinesiology, moiré fringe topography and
rasterstereography are used to study postures and gaits of athletes. Moiré
fringe topography and rasterstereography are (noncontact and noninvasive)
stereophotogrammteric techniques, which provide 3D information in terms of
height and curvature maps of the study surface. These techniques do not involve ionizing
radiations, e.g., X rays, posing no risk to althletes. In the context of
3Dstatic model of the human spinal column (put forward by author in 1982, complete version published in 1996),
profile of spinal column in three dimensions was generated by moiré photograph
of back. A simultaneous recording from moiré and raster gave
height and curvature maps of spinal column (thus generating 3D profile of
spinal column) in each phase of human gait (technique developed in 1996). A 3Ddynamic model related spinal column in
each phase to the next through edgebased algorithm. Edgebased moiré and edgebased
raster allowed study of changes in height and curvature maps of
human back during a gait cycle. In the area of sportsperformance analysis,
unwanted motion in the sagittal plane by a gymnast performing on vault may be
monitored using edgebased moiré. There is a need for planning and implementing
dynamical and robust Sports Sciences and Technologies Programs in
national universities and sportstraining institutions, in place of the
traditional Departments of Health and Physical Education. This is the
only way for Pakistan to regain glory in hockey and cricket and follow a path
leading to excellence in other events, e. g., gymnastics and swimming. Extended Abstract PDF
C70: From Mathematics to Technology: A Bridge through Physics and
Engineering
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan
Kamal SA, Proceedings of the
International Conference on Physics and the World of Today, Edited by Jafri MA, Naqvi SM, National Center for
Physics and Department of Physics, University of Karachi, 2008, pp 3239 (invited paper)

The deaf and the dumb equations of mathematics are made to speak through physics, which is the
formulation
of general laws applying, mainly, inductive logic. Engineering is modeling from the general laws to
create practical systems. Technology is the implementation and the
adaptation of a laboratory model to create a working system, which could be massproduced.
The journey from mathematics to technology could be considered as
a journey from the abstract to the concrete, mathematics being in books,
in the minds of philosophers, physics making contact with outside world,
technology becoming the stage, where one enjoys the blessings. The training
of mathematicians and physicists should inculcate creative thinking and make them capable to
critically analyze problems, taking them from various stages of concept
building to equip them with problemsolving skills. Problem solving in the classroom should prepare them to problem solving in the laboratories, and, eventually, problem solving in the industry. This paper illustrates
how simple activities, like measurement of height and determination of
safeviewing distance for watching television could reinforce concepts and
techniques from various disciplines, including mathematics, physics, chemistry,
biology, engineering, health and safety. Mathematics curricula should give
students the practical skills needed by a prospective employer. The paper
describes the behaviorbased interview format for teachers in
mathematics, elaborating technical and performance skills needed for
these jobs and examines if the recentlyprepared mathematics curricula for BS, MS and PhD by Higher Education Commission, Government of Pakistan
are preparing students in this regard and whether they are, properly,
interfaced with preuniversity curricula. Extended Abstract PDF Full Text PDF
C69: Role of Moiré Fringe Topography and Rasterstereography
in the Management of Back Pain
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan
Kamal SA, the
First National Conference on Headache and Back Pain, Session III, Karachi,
Pakistan, 2008



Fig. 1. Study of human back using moiré fringe topography (Photo
Credit: Shakeel Ahmed Ansari) 

Fig. 2. Study of human shoulder using rastersterography (Photo
Credit: Majeed Ahmed Khan) 
Back pain causes reduction in the quality and the quantity of work done by an
employee, a housewife or a student. There is a need for noncontact and
noninvasive techniques for monitoring causes of back pain, so that efficient
and effective management strategies could be initiated. Moiré fringe topography
and rasterstereography are photogrammteric techniques, which provide 3D
information in terms of height and curvature maps of the study surface (Figures
1 and 2), the human back in case
of back pain, the human shoulder in case of frozen shoulder, etc. These
techniques do not involve ionizing radiations, e.g., X rays, and, hence,
ideal for monitoring spinal curvatures in children. The author developed
methods to determine Cobb angle from measurements
performed on moiré topographs (and its generalization in 3D, the Asr Angle). In the context of
3Dstatic model of the human spinal column (put forward by author in 1982, complete version published in 1996),
profile of spinal column in three dimensions was generated by moiré photograph
of back, used to study posture, providing insight into the anatomical basis of
back pain. A simultaneous recording from moiré and raster gave height and
curvature maps of spinal column (thus generating 3D profile of spinal column)
in each phase of human gait (developed in 1996). A 3Ddynamic model related spinal column in
each phase to the next through edgebased algorithm. Edgebased moiré and edgebased
raster allowed study of changes in height and curvature maps of
human back during a gait cycle, thus providing clues to
the physiological basis of back pain. Extended Abstract PDF
C68: Pattern Recognition using Moiré Fringe Topography and
Rasterstereography
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Proceedings of the International
Symposium on Biometrics and Security Technologies (IEEE ISBAST 2008),
Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2008, pp 17 (invited paper)

Moiré fringe topography and rasterstereography are 3D optical imaging
techniques, which provide height and curvature maps of the subject or the
object under study. These are noncontact and noninvasive techniques, which
project moiré and raster grids on the body. The distorted grids contain height
and curvature information, which may be recovered using imageprocessing
algorithms. These techniques are being applied to face recognition. The
information may be stored in the database and not easily accessible to ordinary
citizen. Hence, the chances of fake pictures or fabricated patterns are
minimized. Techniques are developed to project, simultaneously, moiré and raster grids and analyze height and
curvature information, separately, using selective optical filtering, which could be used to record
height and curvature patterns during a certain action, e. g., uttering a
standard word. Edgebased algorithms, combined with moiré contours and raster
patterns, allow study of face movements through changing height and curvature
maps. A multilevel screening of suspects using these
technologies is proposed. Full Text PDF
2006
C67: Incorporatng CrossRange Error in
the Lambert Scheme
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan
Kamal SA, Proceedings of the Tenth National Aeronautical
Conference, Edited by Sheikh SR, Khan AM, College of Aeronautical
Engineering, Pakistan Air Force Academy, Risalpur, NWFP, Pakistan, 2006, pp
255263

The determination of an orbit, having a specified transfer
time (timeofflight) and connecting two position vectors, frequently referred
to as the Lambert problem, is fundamental in astrodynamics. Of the many
techniques existing for solving this twobody, twopoint, timeconstrained
orbital boundaryvalue problem, Gauss' and Lagrange's methods were combined to
obtain an elegant algorithm based on Battin's work. This algorithm included
detection of crossrange error. A
variable TYPE,
introduced in the transfertime equation, was flipped, to generate the
inverseLambert scheme. The Lambert scheme could be useful in steering a
satellitelaunch vehicle (SLV) as well as constructing the control system of a
passengercraft traveling in a ballistic trajectory. Full Text PDF
C66: The
MultiStageQ system and the InverseQ System for Possible Application in
SatelliteLaunch Vehicle (SLV)
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF
KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Mirza A, Proceedings of the
Fourth International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technologies (IBCAST
2005), Volume 3, Control and Simulation, Edited by Hussain SI, Munir A, Kayani J,
Samar R, Khan MA, National Center for
Physics, Bhurban, KP, Pakistan, 2006, pp 2733 — Nominated by Vice Chancellor,
University of Karachi

Steering a SatelliteLaunch Vehicle (SLV) to strictly follow a predefined
trajectory imposes unnecessary load on the control loop, and may, possibly,
saturate servos. This may introduce a permanent error in the
vehicledestination position and velocity vectors. Consequently, payload
(satellite) would be deployed in a wrong orbit. The orbitalerror correction
utilizes onboard energy, which reduces the operational life of a satellite.
Therefore, it is desirable that SLV is capable of altering its trajectory
according to the new operating conditions, in order to achieve the required
destination position and velocity vectors. In this paper, an innovative
adaptive scheme
was presented, based on “the MultiStageQ System”. Using the control
laws expressed in the ellipticastrodynamicalcoördinate mesh (normalcomponentcrossproduct
steering and normalcomponentdotproduct
steering), this scheme proposed a design of autopilot, which
achieved the predecided destination position and velocity vectors for a
multistage rocket, when each stage was detached from the main vehicle after it
burnt out, completely. In “the InverseQ System”, one applied extendedcrossproduct
steeriing to the vector sum of velocity vectors of spacecraft
and interceptor. Full Text PDF
2005
C65: Vision of the Academic Community of Science
and Physics Concepts at High School
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road,
Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Ara J,
Kamal SA, Rahim T, Naseeruddin, the
International Conference on Physics for World and Society, Celebration of
World Year of Physics and the Third Annual Session of Rajasthan Physics
Association, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India, 2005

This paper describes a preliminary research carried out at midpointstudy level
to assess vision of science teaching, especially, physics at matric and ‘O’
levels. Based on the findings of an earlier smallscaleinterview study, a
questionnaire was prepared related to science, in particular, physics concepts.
The designed questionnaire was given to a small sample consisting of 50 regular
teachers involved at secondary and ‘O’levels
teaching. Results based on the questionnaire were analyzed and some of the
implications presented.
C64: EllipseOrientation Steering: A
Control Law for Spacecrafts and SatelliteLaunch Vehicles (SLV)
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan
Kamal SA, Space Science and Challenges of the
TwentyFirstCentury, ISPASUPARCO Collaborative Seminar
(in connection with World Space Week 2005), University of Karachi, Karachi,
November 21, 2005 (invited paper)

The mission design is not complete unless the trajectory calculation includes
checks for crossrange error and downrange error. EllipseOrientation Steering, a control law expressed in terms of
the ellipticastrodynamicalcoördinate mesh, states conditions,
which must be satisfied for no downrange error and no crossrange error.
Mathematical proof was given and protocols for elimination of downrange and
crossrange errors described.
C63: Mathematics Research, Teaching and Community
Outreach in University of Karachi: Challenges
and Opportunities
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road,
Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal
SA, Informative Mathematical Event, Karachi Mathematical
Association and Department of Mathematics,
University of Karachi, Karachi, 2005

This paper explored the challenges involved and the opportunities available for
mathematics research, teaching and community outreach at University of Karachi,
the largest university in public sector. The research philosophy consists of
capitalizing on the strengths of mathematics (the power of generalization and
the power of application) to propose smart solutions, which improve man’s
quality of life. The pedagogical philosophy is based on nurturing habits of
creative thinking and critical analysis in students. An efficient (coverage in
allocated time) and an effective (SLOs achieved) curriculum (the contents and
the pedagogical techniques) must be supplemented with a comprehensive system of
evaluation. The philosophy of community outreach is formulated on the notion of
taking into confidence the community (where work is being done), through
involvement in decisionmaking process, planning and implementing various
programs as well as educating society about the importance of mathematics as a
tool of the tools, having predictive power and as a branch of knowledge, which
appreciates and cultivates beauty of nature through the use of numbers.
2004
C62:
Mathematics Research and Teaching in University of Karachi: Challenges and
Opportunities
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF
KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal
SA, the Winter Conference in Mathematics, Center for Advanced Studies in Mathematics,
LUMS (the Lahore University of Management Sciences), Lahore, Pakistan, 2004,
abstract#25, p 18

This paper dealt with the challenges involved and the opportunities
available for mathematics research and teaching in a publicsector setting. The
pedagogical philosophy is based on cultivating habits of creative thinking and
critical analysis by providing highly motivated students sufficient depth as
well as adequate breadth of the core and the related subjects so that they can
make informed, independent decisions under stressful situations. The contents
as well as the pedagogical techniques constitute an effective curriculum,
combined with a system of evaluation to ascertain that learning objectives have
been accomplished. The training of a mathematician should take the incumbent
from concept building and mapping towards applying the mathematical skills
through problem formulation, analysis and suggesting viable solutions.
Problemsolving in the classroom must prepare the student to handle industrial
problems and, eventually, take up research problems. A teaching program without
input from active researchers shall become mundane. Exposure to cuttingedge
research is essential for the faculty and the students. The students should be
trained to capitalize on the strengths of mathematics, having the power of
generalization and the power of application, to formulate and to propose
solutions, which enhance man's quality of life.
C61: Strong Noether’s Theorem: Applications in Astrodynamics
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF
KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal
SA, the Second Symposium on Cosmology, Astrophysics and
Relativity, Center for Advanced
Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technologies,
Rawalpindi, Pakistan, 2004, p 2

Noether’s theorem is one of the fundamental theorems relating conservation laws to spacetime symmetries. A stronger version of
Noether’s theorem was given and its applications demonstrated in handling
twobody problem of planetary motion. It essentially states that if one sets up a problem closer to natural symmetries of the system, one should discover additional constants of motion. Twobody problem was setup in the
ellipticastrodynamicalcoördinate mesh, and Kepler’s equation was shown to be a
particular solution of the equation of motion. This formulation yielded 3
constants of motion, instead of the customary 2.
C60: Use of
Astrodynamical Coördinates to StudyBounded Keplarian Motion
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF
KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal
SA, the Fifth International Pure Mathematics Conference, QuaidéAzam University and Pakistan
Mathematical Society, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2004, abstract#31, p 37 (nominated
by Vice Chancellor, University of Karachi)

This paper reviewed the use of ellipticastrodynamicalcoördinate mesh
to study boundedkeplarian motion. The problem reduces to oneparameter
problem, since the keplerian orbits are ellipses. Expressions for the
hamiltonian and the lagrangian were obtained.
Kepler’s equation was shown to be a particular solution of the equation
of motion in this coördinate mesh. This formulation was verified by evaluating
known expressions and a few applications were presented.
C59: Industrial and
Business Mathematics in the Third Millennium (Concluding Talk)
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road,
Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, the MIBM Grand Seminar: Industrial and Business Mathematics
in the Third Millennium,
Department
of Mathematics, University of Karachi, 2004

This
paper reviewed mathematical problems and challenges faced by the industrial,
the business and the financial sector and how Program in Industrial and
Business Mathematics proposes to tackle them. Mathematics possesses the unique
powers of “Generalization” and ”Application”. The teaching methodology based on
concepts, mathematical structure, tools, techniques and applications was
elaborated.
C58: Mathematical Modeling of
Physiological Systems
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road,
Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, the First World Conference on TwentyFirst
Century Mathematics, School of
Mathematical Sciences, GC University, Lahore, Pakistan, 2004, abstract#67, pp
1920

This paper reviewed mathematical models of brain, heart,
spinal column and human growth with an emphasis on the mathematical, the
physical and the computer science concepts involved. The models of brain were
based on generalized theory of driven harmonic oscillator. Study of group
structure has provided mathematical definition of brain death. Model of heart
was based on standingwave concept. In addition, static and dynamic models of
the human spinal column were presented. The models generate threedimensional
profile of the human spinal column from noncontact, noninvasive, measurements
obtained from moiré contours. Moiré
fringe topography is a stereophotogrammetric technique, which gives
threedimensional information of any curved surface. Rasterstereography gives
local curvatures of the surface. A combination of these techniques is applied
to study posture and gait of child, detect and quantify curvatures of spinal
column and aid orthopedic surgeons in operations by providing 3D maps of bony
structures to be operated. A model of child growth was described, which
included a method to generate detailed growth profile of a child on the basis
of records of height and weight of child, sixmonth apart as well as heights
and weights of biological father and biological mother. Problems and
challenges, which could be taken up by twentyfirstcentury mathematicians,
were also discussed.
2003
C57: The Training of a
Physicist: From Concept Building to ProblemSolving Skills
(Concluding Talk + Recommendations of the Conference)
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road,
Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, the Second International Conference on Physics
Education, Department of
Physics, University of Karachi, 2003

Physics teaching in Pakistani institutions does not produce physicists capable
of bringing out new concepts. Neither, they are trained in problemsolving
skills. This paper focused on the factors contributing to this state of
affairs. Further, it proposed strategies to reverse the situation. Full Text PDF
C56: Incompleteness of CrossProduct Steering and a
Mathematical Formulation of ExtendedCrossProduct Steering
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY
OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Proceedings of
the First International Bhurban Conference
on Applied Sciences and Technologies (IBCAST 2002), Volume 1, Advanced
Materials, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Control Engineering, Edited by Hoorani HR, Munir A, Samar R, Zahir S,
National Center for Physics, Bhurban, KP, Pakistan, 2003, pp 167177

Crossproduct steering, as presented by Battin, is
incomplete and cannot achieve the desired results. A further condition on the
magnitude of rate of change of velocity is needed to bring the spacecraft in
the desired orbit. The new control law is named as "ExtendedCrossProduct
Steering", which incorporates this additional condition. Mathematical
representation using the ellipticastrodynamicalcoördinate mesh was presented.
Full Text PDF
C55: DotProduct Steering: a New Control Law for
Spacecrafts and Satellites
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF
KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Proceedings of the First International Bhurban Conference on
Applied Sciences and Technologies (IBCAST 2002), Volume 1, Advanced Materials,
Computational Fluid Dynamics and Control Engineering, Edited by Hoorani HR, Munir A, Samar R, Zahir S,
National Center for Physics, Bhurban, KP, Pakistan, 2003, pp 178184

A control law is formulated, which employs dotproducts of
velocity and its rate of change. Mathematical representation using the
ellipticastrodynamicalcoördinate mesh was presented. Full Text PDF
2002
C54: The
EarlyChildhoodIntegratedDevelopmental Examination (ECIDE) for 38YearOld
Children
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA , the Aga Khan
University National Sciences Research Symposium: Early Childhood Care and
Development (ECCD 2002), Karachi, 2002, abstract#17, p 32 (poster
presentation)

Objective: To study the
developmental milestones achieved during early childhood.
Methods: ECIDE
incorporates observation of child's behavior under standardized conditions,
with separate
ratings for MAQ (mental ability quotient) and MCQ (motor coördination quotient).
Child is scored on (a) behavior, (b) grooming, (c) response to undressing, (d)
interest in testing material and surroundings, (e) orientation in space and in
time, (f) degree and duration of concentration, (g) distractibility, (h)
compliance, (i) fearfulness with apparatus and people, (j) movements, (k)
speech, (l) irritability, (m) activity level and (n) ability to interact with
peers. Selected segments are given to the NGDS Pilot Project participants,
comprising of over 1000 healthy 38 years old boys and girls, representing a
national sample.
Results: Pakistani children, in general, excel in mental ability as
compared to their western counterparts. However, their motor coördination, in
particular, gait needs to be improved.
Recommendations/Conclusions: ECIDE needs to be developed further with a structured,
formalordered performance routine based on influence and precedence graphs.
Once developed fully and baseline scores established, the test may be useful in
evaluating the effectiveness of various teaching and childupbringing
approaches. On a cellular level, the test may provide one of many tools to map
synaptic connections formed during a learning process.
C53: The NGDS Pilot
Project: Aiming at the Future of Pakistan
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA,
Firdous S, Alam SJ, the Aga Khan
University National Sciences Research Symposium: Early Childhood Care and
Development (ECCD 2002), Karachi, 2002, abstract#13, p 26 (presentation CD compiled by the organizers)

Objective:
To pinpoint cases of stunting and wasting in early childhood by obtaining a
detailed growth profile
of a child.
Methods: The NGDS (National Growth and
Developmental Standards for the Pakistani Children) Pilot Project is being
successfully implemented since 1998, to collect data on children, representing
a national sample, in a betterthanaverage health. Standing and sitting heights,
shoulder widths and midupperarmcircumferences are measured on over 2000
healthy children. A software is developed, which takes as input heights and
weights of biological father and biological mother, as well as those of child
at 2 successive occasions, 6 months apart. The output is a detailed growth
profile indicating stunting and wasting (if present), optimal and actual
bodymass indices, height velocities and rates of weight gain (or loss).
Results: Growth profiles of children in descriptive, tabular, graphical
and barchart form are to be presented.
Recommendations/Conclusions:
There should be a "National Anthropometry Center", which
should receive and process data from sub centers located in each
"tehsil"/town. By law, the parents be required to register all live
births to these sub centers. All children must receive headtotoe examination
every 6 months including anthropometry during the early childhood years. A
healthy child would become a healthy parent, thereby minimizing malnutritionrelated
diseases. Only a wellnourished child
can take up the challenges of leadership.
C52: The NGDS Pilot Project: A Software to Analyze Growth of a
Child (A Telemedicine Perspective)
Work done at: UNIVERSITY
OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Alam SJ, Firdous
S, the National Telemedicine Conference
Pakistan, Technology Resource
Mobilization Unit (TReMU), Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of
Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2002, p 2

Aims and Objectives:
1) To establish Pakistanbased anthropometricaldata
library and growth charts.
2) To write softwares, which generate growth profile of a child.
3) To develop inexpensive anthropometry instruments from local resources.
Material
& Methods:
Protocols were designed after taking into account North American and European
ethical and humanrights standards, employing optin policy. Standing and
sitting heights, shoulder widths, weights and midupperarm circumferences are
measured on over 2000 healthy children.
Software
Developed Indigenously: A software was developed at the University
of Karachi using Microsoft Visual Studio, Version 6.0, which takes as input
heights and weights of biological father and biological mother, and those of
child at 2 successive occasions, 6 months apart. The output is a detailed
growth profile indicating stunting (if present), overweight/underweight
conditions, height velocity (comparison with reference height velocity) and
rate of weight gain/loss (comparison with reference weight gain). This software
is to be made accessible electronically for remote processing of data.
Instrumentation
Developed Indigenously: Inexpensive instruments for height
measurement as well as moiré frame for 3D anthropometry, somatotyping and
screening of trunk deformities was developed from local resources.
Results:
Detailed growth analysis of a child using software developed by the NGDS Team
was presented.
Recommendations:
Failuretogrow may be the first indication of a major underlying problem. The
NGDS Team recommended growth monitoring and analysis of all 310yearold
children using this software. Full Text
PDF
C51: A
Precedence Graph for the Physical Examination of Children
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan
Kamal SA, Alam SJ, Firdous S, the
National Telemedicine Conference Pakistan, Technology Resource Mobilization
Unit (TReMU), Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Pakistan,
Islamabad, Pakistan, 2002, p 2

In the field of
pediatrics, physical examination is the most important part of any
intervention. Some checks must be performed before the others. Otherwise, an undiscovered condition may
affect adversely on a patient's health. Everyone knows that an examination of
the resting heart must be performed before treadmill testing. Similarly, hernia
check must precede cardiac
function testing in the squatting position. "Precedence Graphs" were
presented showing the procedures, which must precede the others. Some of the
procedures can be performed, concurrently. For example, cardiac function in the
standing position, and check for undescended testicles could be performed concurrently. Examples were
brought up where "Concurrent Processing" was allowed in the physical
examination of children. This software might be a useful training tool for the
students and the residents, alike.
C50: An Influence Graph for the
Physical Examination of Children
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan
Kamal SA, Alam
SJ, Firdous S, the Aga Khan University PGME Conference: Complexity Science and Health
Care, Karachi, 2002 (poster presentation)

In pediatrics, physical
examination is the basis to start any intervention. However, some procedures influence
certain portions of the examination. For example, running can influence
blood pressure and heart rate. "Influence Graphs" were presented
showing various procedures influenced by others. Protocols of physical
examination need to be designed in such a way that interacting procedures are
performed in a laiddown sequence, or during separate sessions.
This software might be a
useful training tool for students and residents.
C49: The NGDS Pilot Project:
Dealing with a Complex System
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan
Kamal SA, Firdous S, Alam SJ, the Aga Khan University PGME Conference: Complexity Science and Health
Care, Karachi, 2002 (poster presentation)

The NGDS (National Growth
and Developmental Standards for the Pakistani children) Pilot Project was
initiated in 1998 under the directives of Governor Sindh/Chancellor, University
of Karachi. Anthropometrical data (standing height, sitting height, weight,
midupperarm circumference, shoulder width) have been collected in 411 years
old children studying in institutions run by the Armed Forces of Pakistan. In
addition, the children were screened for anemia, cardiac problems and presence
of spinal curvatures. Their posture and gait has also been observed. Those
showing signs of trunk deformities, especially scoliosis, are asked to come for
a moiré examination. Organization of the NGDS Pilot Project necessitated
dealing with a complex system: University of Karachi, Government of Sindh, the
Armed Forces of Pakistan, the institutional administration, the institutional
health team, families and teachers. Efforts were made to communicate with each
at the proper level, making the project relevant to the particular needs of
that body/individual. Information regarding educational background and
profession of parents was used to devise communication strategies.
C48: The NGDS Pilot Project: Anthropometry of the Pakistani
Children
Work done
at: UNIVERSITY
OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Firdous
S, the Sixteenth International Biennial Conference of Pakistan Pediatric
Association, Karachi, 2002, abstract#PO26, p 127 (poster presentation)

The NGDS (National Growth and Developmental Standards for the Pakistani
Children) Pilot Project aims to establish a national anthropometricaldata library
of Pakistani children. Over 2000 healthy children studying in representative
institutions run by the Armed Forces of Pakistan are measured using inexpensive
anthropometric instruments developed from local resources. Accuracy and
precision of these instruments are comparable to those purchased in
international market. The measurements obtained were standing and sitting
heights, shoulder widths, weights and midupperarm circumferences on over 2000
healthy children.
Benefits and Usefulness:
1) Health education and awareness
2) Regular monitoring of height and weight
3) Screening for growth retardation, trunk deformities, poor posture and gait
4) Training of school doctors and physicaleducation instructors
C47: The NGDS Pilot Project: Modeling Growth of the
Pakistani Children
Work done at: UNIVERSITY
OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Firdous S, the
Sixteenth International Biennial Conference of Pakistan Pediatric Association,
Karachi, 2002

The NGDS Pilot Project was initiated in 1998 under the directives of Governor
Sindh/Chancellor, University of Karachi. It is a goodwill, publicservice
endeavor, conducted free of charge for the care and the development of young
persons to prepare them mentally, physically and emotionally for rewarding
careers in the civil and the military services. Growth of Pakistani children is
modeled keeping in view the ICP model of human growth, put forward by Johan
Karlberg. According to this model, height
gain is continuous, but not smooth. Phase transitions from "infancy to
childhood" and "childhood to puberty" are accompanied by abrupt
changes in height velocity. There are 3 periods of rapid growth: (a)
after conception, (b) start of “childhood curve”, (c) start of
“puberty curve”. Children suffering from severe disease (e. g.,
diarrhea) during the weaning period may continue on the infancy curve a little
longer, before picking up the childhood curve and, hence, end up shorter.

Abstracts of Conference Papers (19701979) (19801989) (19901999) (20102013) (2014)
Updated: February 1, 2021 (0000h UTC)
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