Abstracts of Journal Papers (2017-)

Abstracts of Journal Papers (1980-1989) (1990-1999)

(2000-2009) (2010-2013) (2014-2016)

2017


2017

J49: Integration of BMI-based-Optimal Mass
and Height-Percentile-based-Optimal Mass to
Propose the Sixth-Generation Solution of Child-
hood Obesity

The Sixth-Generation Solution of childhood-obesity
problem

Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University
Road, Karachi 75270,
Pakistan

Kamal SA, International Journal of Biology and Bio-
technology
, 14 (4), 2017, 485-502
---------------------------------------------------
Childhood obesity is a manifestation of discrepancy
between energy intake and expenditure, which

disturbs the original steady state causing to form a fresh steady state at an elevated level, with the consequence of increased body-fat storage. Balance must be established between tissue synthesis, resulting in gain of height, and fat storage, resulting in gain in mass, in order to avert childhood obesity. Many definitions of childhood obesity are available. During the last five years, our group put forward the First- to the Fifth-Generation Solutions of Childhood Obesity. The last one consisted of a mathematical definition of childhood obesity, related to the logical definition. This paper proposes a range for 6 monthly mass-management targets instead of single values, by fitting two parabolic curves, both originating at the age of the most-rent checkup. One of these curves meets tangentially, at the age of 10 years, the straight line, which represents reference percentile at the age of the most-recent checkup, whereas the other curve meets the straight line, which represents percentile of BMI-based-optimal mass at the age of the most-rent checkup. The range is obtained by 6 line segments drawn parallel to vertical (percentile) axis drawn at the date of check up for the next 6 successive months. The range of mass-management goals may render the task of optimal-mass management easier instead of a single value. Full Text (6th-Generation Solution of Childhood Obesity) PDF

Additional File 1: Compliance with Ethical and Human-Right Standards PDF

Additional File 2: Height and Mass Management PDF

Additional File 3: Detailed Report of M. E. (SGPP-KHI-20100421-03/01) PDF

Additional File 4: Condensed Report of M. E. PDF

Additional File 5: Detailed Calculations of Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap 2.0 of M. E. PDF

Additional File 6: Detailed Calculations of Obesity Profiles 2.0 of Parents of M. E. PDF

Additional File 7: Growth-and-Obesity Scalar-Roadmap 2.0 of Z. J. PDF

 

J48: Psychological Testing, Physical Examination and Fitness Testing of Primary-School Students for Participation in Gymnastic Activities
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, UniversityRoad, Karachi 75270,Pakistan
Kamal SA, Azeemi HI, Khan SR, Pamukkale Journal ofSport Sciences, 8 (2), 2017, 15-40

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The authors highlight significance of fitness testing, psychological and physical examinations for primary-school students, who wish to participate in gymnastic activities. The main purpose of pre-participation examination is safety of potential gymnasts, team members, coaches and staff. The prime function of end-of-term evaluation is performance assessment and possible improvement from the last term. Taking the example of a girl, who is participating in gymnastics, this work illustrates use of Growth-and-Obesity Roadmap in determining suitability for inclusion in gymnastic team, focusing on nutritional status, estimated-adult height and build of student. Build is computed using scaled percentiles adapted for the Pakistani children, which are generated from CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States) percentiles by fitting a parabolic curve. Mathematical-statistical definitions of normal, early, delayed, excessively delayed and precarious puberty are proposed. Approximate Tanner scores have been assigned to prepubertal, peripubertal, pubertal, adolescent and adult stages. Full Text PDF
Additional File 1: Checkup Protocols PDF

Additional File 2: Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmaps of G Family PDF

Additional File 3: Calculations using Scaled Percentiles PDF

 

J47: Medical Criteria for induction into the Armed Forces of Pakistan: Cutoff Heights for Still-Growing Youth
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Ansari SA, Sarwar M, Naz AA, International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 14 (3), 2017,
319-331

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Objective: To propose objective criteria of cutoff heights for still-growing youth by examining current criteria and identifying their short comings

Study Design: Observational study

Place and Duration of Study: Initiated in 1998 in schools run by the Armed Forces of Pakistan; a civilian school added in 2011

Subjects and Methods: Primary-school students’ heights and masses were measured, to least counts of 0.1 cm (1998-2011); 0.01 cm (2012-2015); 0.005 cm (2016 to date) and 0.5 kg (1998-2011); 0.01 kg (2012-2015); 0.005 kg (2016 to date), respectively, during morning hours, implementing standardized protocols (ethical guidelines followed, students undressed to underpants, equipments calibrated daily, measurer reproducibility documented), and modeled to compute estimated-adult heights, estimated-adult masses, height and mass percentiles, optimal masses, estimated-adult BMIs (body-mass indices). In order to deal with extreme cases, CDC Growth Tables were extended using mathematical-statistical techniques to include 0.01th, 0.1th, 1st, 99th, 99.9th and 99.99th percentiles. Scaled percentiles of height and mass, suitable for the Pakistani population, were generated from CDC percentiles of height and mass by fitting parabolic curves with the condition that the 40th CDC percentile (of height/mass) corresponds to 50th scaled percentile (of height/mass).

Results: Data of 1185 students were analyzed. Mean age was (8.08 ± 2.23) years. Using Extended CDC Growth Charts, height percentiles corresponding to cutoff heights for induction into the Armed Forces of Pakistan were determined as 2.72 (for males) and 19.36 (for females).

Conclusion: Induction criteria for still-growing youth (boys less than 21-year old and girls less than 19-year old) should be based on percentiles rather than measured heights.

Full Text PDF

J46: Possible Validation of Mathematical Definition of Childhood Obesity based on Anthropometric Data Collected during 1998-2013
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270,Pakistan
Kamal SA, Naz AA, Ansari SA, International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 14 (2), 2017, 219-235

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Childhood obesity appears, when there develops a discrepancy between energy intake and expenditure, causing to disturb the original steady state and formation of a fresh steady state at a higher level, which results in increased body-fat storage. Balance needs to be created between tissue synthesis (height gain) and fat storage (mass gain) in order to avoid children becoming obese. There are a number of definitions of childhood obesity given by various researchers, notable among them are those working with the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG). During 2013-2017, the First- to the Fifth-Generation Solutions of Childhood Obesity were proposed by our group. The last one consisted of a mathematical definition of childhood obesity. It related the logical definition, ‘a child is considered to be obese if the incumbent is recommended to lose net weight during a course of the next 6 months based on the youngster’s mass-management goals generated from Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap’ to the mathematical criterion, ‘a child is classified as obese if the difference between the youngster’s mass percentile (at the most-recent checkup) and reference percentile exceeds +15’. This paper explores the proposed mathematical definition by applying this criterion to anthropometric data collected during 15 years ending in 2013. Data were investigated by changing the value of difference around +15. Best results were obtained when the parameter was set equal to +15. Out of 1183 children (302 males, 881 females), 124 had the difference greater than +15. Among these 124 children, 38 showed true obesity according to the logical definition. Full Text PDF  

Additional File 1: Checkup Protocols PDF

Additional File 2: Measurement of Height and Mass PDF (step-by-step protocols illustrated through labeled pictures of procedures as well as common mistakes condensed from Manual for Obtaining Anthropometric Measurements PDF)

Additional File 3: Detailed Calculations of M. E.'s Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap PDF

Additional File 4: Lifestyle Adjustment, Diet and Exercise Plans PDF

Additional File 5: Algorithm PDF

 

J45: In Search of a Definition of Childhood Obesity

The Fifth-Generation Solution of childhood-obesity problem
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 14 (1), 2017, 49-67

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Childhood obesity is manifested when there develops a discrepancy between intake and output of energy, disturbing the original steady state and formation of a fresh steady state at a higher level, resulting in increased body-fat storage. There needs to be a delicate balance established between tissue synthesis (height gain) and fat storage (mass gain) in order to prevent obesity. Various definitions of childhood obesity have been proposed. During 1995-2001, Poskitt, representing European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG), tried to deal with this issue. In a 1995 paper, she expressed concern over lack of childhood-obesity definition. In 2000, she mentioned that the concept of relative body-mass index (BMI) had been generally accepted. In 2001, she observed that BMI could not be considered as offering the ‘best’ definition, although it might be ‘useful’ and ‘practical’. In 2000 Cole and co-workers linked childhood obesity to adult-obesity-cutoff point (BMI 30 kg/m2). In a 2010 paper, Flegal and co-workers gave 3 BMI-for-age categories: ‘normal’, ‘intermediate’ and ‘high’. The first one most unlikely, whereas the last one most likely, to have high adiposity. In a 2011 paper, Rolland-Cachera and co-workers, on behalf of ECOG, defined 3 cutoffs of BMI, constituting four ranges: ‘thin’, ‘normal’, ‘overweight’ and ‘obese’. During the same year, Zhao and Grant defined obesity as excess of body fat. In a 2015 paper, Al-Gindan and co-workers expressed the opinion that most national-survey analyses equating BMI in excess of 30 kg/m2 with ‘obesity’ led to survey-data misinterpretation. This paper puts forward the point-of-view that ‘overweight’ must be differentiated from ‘overfat’. One needs a definition based, solely, on measurement of mass, not measurement of fat, which is difficult to obtain in a reproducible manner. Childhood obesity has been defined as the condition in which a youngster is required to shed off net mass at the end of 6-month period as compared to current mass based on ‘Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap’ recommendations. In this work, ‘BMI-based-optimal mass’ is compared with ‘height-percentile-based-optimal mass’ and mathematical relationship is proposed for losing net mass within the next 6 months.
Full Text (5th-Generation Solution of Childhood Obesity) PDF
Additional File 1: Checkup Protocols PDF
Additional File 2: Detailed Calculations of M. E.'s Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap PDF

Additional File 3: Graphical Representation and Color Scheme PDF

Related Presentation: Streamlining Various Definitions of Childhood Obesity PDF

Abstracts of Journal Papers (1980-1989) (1990-1999) (2000-2009) (2010-2013) (2014-2016)

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