Abstracts of Journal Papers (2017-)

Abstracts of Journal Papers (1980-1989) (1990-1999)

(2000-2009) (2010-2013) (2014-2016)

2018 2017


2018

J52: Validation of Concept of Optimal Mass in Child-
ren and Adults — The Seventh-Generation Solution
of Childhood Obesity
Work done at: The NGDS Pilot Project, PO Box 8423,
Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Abstract
Kamal SA, Jamil N, Ansari SA, International Journal of

Biology and Biotechnology, 15 (4), 2018, 613-638

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Childhood obesity is a result of difference between

intake and expenditure of energy, disturbing initial

steady state and forming a new steady state at a
higher level, resulting in increased body-fat storage.
To avoid obesity, child needs to balance tissue synthesis, responsible for picking-up height, with fat storage, responsible for putting-on weight (mass). During 2002-2012, child growth and obesity were modeled, introducing the terms, estimated-adult BMI, pseudo-gain of height/mass and energy-channelization (co-existence of wasting and tallness/stunting and obesity).  During 2013-2017, our group put forward first- to sixth-generation solutions of childhood obesity, which included new a definition of childhood obesity. This paper unveils seventh-generation solution, placing height-percentile-based-optimal mass and BMI-based-optimal mass on equal footing by defining modified status (pertaining-to-mass) in terms of that optimal mass, which is closer to net mass. Similarly, current-age-mid-parental height and current-age-army-cutoff height are treated on equal footing by defining modified status (pertaining-to-height) in terms of that current-age height, which is closer to recorded height. This leads to a modification of definitions of ‘instantaneous obesity/wasting’ and ‘true obesity/wasting’. Polar-coördinate representation of nutritional-status classification is expanded to 10 categories, viz. energy-channelization III (puberty-induced energy-channelization), obesity dominated over-nutrition, tallness dominated over-nutrition, tallness dominated energy-channelization I, wasting dominated energy-channelization I, stunting dominated energy-channelization II, obesity dominated energy-channelization II, stunting dominated under-nutrition, wasting dominated under-nutrition, acute malnutrition. This paper gives the method of constructing Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap 2.1, which includes ‘away-from-normality index’ and ‘polar angle’ in addition to build assigned from scaled percentiles, modified as well as descriptive statuses (pertaining-to-height) and (pertaining-to-mass). Vector-Roadmap 2.1 proposes 6 month-wise height management target values as well as mass management target ranges, these ranges may render the task of optimal-mass management easier. The authors have expanded lifestyle adjustment, diet and exercise plans to achieve the recommended targets. Vector-Roadmap 2.1 is generated from height and mass measurements obtained to least counts of 0.005 cm and 0.005 kg, respectively. Computations are performed using Extended CDC Growth Charts and Tables containing percentiles in the range 0.01 to 99.99. Rigorous mathematical arguments are employed to prove true obesity implying instantaneous obesity and instantaneous wasting implying true wasting are proved using rigorous mathematical arguments, with illustrative examples for each condition. Full Text (7th-Generation Solution of Childhood Obesity) PDF

Additional File: Color Coding of Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap 2.1 PDF

Related Paper: Integration of BMI-based-Optimal Mass and Height-Percentile-based-Optimal Mass PDF

Related Presentation: Streamlining Various Definitions of Childhood Obesity PDF

Related Presentation: US Childhood Obesity Problem — Solutions Proposed in Pakistan PDF

J51: Solar-Eclipse Observations in Pakistan: Health and Safety Considerations
Work done at: The NGDS Pilot Project, PO Box 8423, Karachi 75270,Pakistan
Kamal SA,
The Sky-IJPEHSAS, 2, 2018, 38-45
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This paper addresses health issues associated with the observations of solar eclipses, in particular, eclipse retinopathy due to observation of partial-solar eclipses without proper protection to eyes. Partial- and total-solar-eclipse expeditions conducted by the author during 1995-2008 are described. Violation of Kepler’s second law of planetary motion was witnessed during the 1995 total-solar-eclipse expedition and the same was confirmed during the 1999 total-solar-eclipse expedition. During the 1995 expedition, seconds before the end of totality, the black circular disc changed into an elliptical shape of eccentricity 0.26, with the major axis vertical to horizon. Safe viewing of eclipse is recommended through special glasses made from 2 layers of completely exposed ASA 100 film as well as UV-cutoff glasses. Full Text PDF

Related Additional Information: Solar-Eclipse Expeditions in Pakistan

 

J50: Overcoming Vitamin-D Deficiency in Male Gymnasts during Preteen Years
Work done at: The NGDS Pilot Project, PO Box 8423, Karachi 75270,Pakistan
Kamal SA,
The Sky-IJPEHSAS, 2, 2018, 60-75
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This paper addresses the issue of vitamin-D deficiency, which is approaching epidemic scale in the Asian countries. Lack of proper nutrition and awareness contributes to this problem. After an explanation of the mechanism of production of vitamin D, the authors list adverse effects of vitamin-D deficiency and propose mandatory testing of vitamin-D deficiency during physical examinations. The remedial measures to overcome this deficiency in the context of preteen male gymnasts include supplements, proper nutrition in the form of sun-ripe fruits and vegetables as well as guarded-graduated sun-exposure. The last two are preferred over supplements as the supplements may produce toxicity, if taken in higher doses. Full Text PDF
Related Presentation: Diet-based Interventions and Vitamin-D Deficiency PDF

Related Public-Interest Article: Helpful Hints for Overcoming Vitamin-D Deficiency PDF

2017

J49: Integration of BMI-based-Optimal Mass and Height-Percentile-based-Optimal Mass to Propose the Sixth-Generation Solution of Childhood Obesity

The Sixth-Generation Solution of childhood-obesity problem
Work done at: The NGDS Pilot Project, PO Box 8423, Karachi 75270,Pakistan
Kamal SA,
International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 14 (4), 2017, 485-502
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Childhood obesity is a manifestation of discrepancy between energy intake and expenditure, which disturbs the original steady state causing to form a fresh steady state at an elevated level, with the consequence of increased body-fat storage. Balance must be established between tissue synthesis, resulting in gain of height, and fat storage, resulting in gain in mass, in order to avert childhood obesity. Many definitions of childhood obesity are available. During the last five years, our group put forward the First- to the Fifth-Generation Solutions of Childhood Obesity. The last one consisted of a mathematical definition of childhood obesity, related to the logical definition. This paper proposes a range for 6 monthly mass-management targets instead of single values, by fitting two parabolic curves, both originating at the age of the most-rent checkup. One of these curves meets tangentially, at the age of 10 years, the straight line, which represents reference percentile at the age of the most-recent checkup, whereas the other curve meets the straight line, which represents percentile of BMI-based-optimal mass at the age of the most-rent checkup. The range is obtained by 6 line segments drawn parallel to vertical (percentile) axis drawn at the date of check up for the next 6 successive months. The range of mass-management goals may render the task of optimal-mass management easier instead of a single value. Full Text (6th-Generation Solution of Childhood Obesity) PDF

Additional File 1: Compliance with Ethical and Human-Right Standards PDF

Additional File 2: Height, Mass and MUAC Managements PDF

Related Paper: In Search of a Definition of Childhood Obesity PDF

Related Paper: Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmaps of the Pakistani Children PDF

 

J48: Psychological Testing, Physical Examination and Fitness Testing of Primary-School Students for Participation in Gymnastic Activities
Work done at: The NGDS Pilot Project, PO Box 8423, Karachi 75270,Pakistan
Kamal SA, Azeemi HI, Khan SR,
Pamukkale Journal ofSport Sciences, 8 (2), 2017, 15-40

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The authors highlight significance of fitness testing, psychological and physical examinations for primary-school students, who wish to participate in gymnastic activities. The main purpose of pre-participation examination is safety of potential gymnasts, team members, coaches and staff. The prime function of end-of-term evaluation is performance assessment and possible improvement from the last term. Taking the example of a girl, who is participating in gymnastics, this work illustrates use of Growth-and-Obesity Roadmap in determining suitability for inclusion in gymnastic team, focusing on nutritional status, estimated-adult height and build of student. Build is computed using scaled percentiles adapted for the Pakistani children, which are generated from CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States) percentiles by fitting a parabolic curve. Mathematical-statistical definitions of normal, early, delayed, excessively delayed and precarious puberty are proposed. Approximate Tanner scores have been assigned to prepubertal, peripubertal, pubertal, adolescent and adult stages. Full Text PDF
Additional File 1: Checkup Protocols PDF

Additional File 2: Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmaps of G Family PDF

Additional File 3: Calculations using Scaled Percentiles PDF

Related Paper: Hairstyle, Footwear and Clothing for Gymnastic Activities in the Primary-School Setting PDF

Related Presentation: Research Empowering Teaching for Community Outreach PDF

Related Presentation: Fitness for Primary-School Children PDF

 

J47: Medical Criteria for induction into the Armed Forces of Pakistan: Cutoff Heights for Still-Growing Youth
Work done at: The NGDS Pilot Project, PO Box 8423, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Ansari SA, Sarwar M, Naz AA,
International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 14 (3), 2017,
319-331

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Objective: To propose objective criteria of cutoff heights for still-growing youth by examining current criteria and identifying their short comings

Study Design: Observational study

Place and Duration of Study: Initiated in 1998 in schools run by the Armed Forces of Pakistan; a civilian school added in 2011

Subjects and Methods: Primary-school students’ heights and masses were measured, to least counts of 0.1 cm (1998-2011); 0.01 cm (2012-2015); 0.005 cm (2016 to date) and 0.5 kg (1998-2011); 0.01 kg (2012-2015); 0.005 kg (2016 to date), respectively, during morning hours, implementing standardized protocols (ethical guidelines followed, students undressed to underpants, equipments calibrated daily, measurer reproducibility documented), and modeled to compute estimated-adult heights, estimated-adult masses, height and mass percentiles, optimal masses, estimated-adult BMIs (body-mass indices). In order to deal with extreme cases, CDC Growth Tables were extended using mathematical-statistical techniques to include 0.01th, 0.1th, 1st, 99th, 99.9th and 99.99th percentiles. Scaled percentiles of height and mass, suitable for the Pakistani population, were generated from CDC percentiles of height and mass by fitting parabolic curves with the condition that the 40th CDC percentile (of height/mass) corresponds to 50th scaled percentile (of height/mass).

Results: Data of 1185 students were analyzed. Mean age was (8.08 ± 2.23) years. Using Extended CDC Growth Charts, height percentiles corresponding to cutoff heights for induction into the Armed Forces of Pakistan were determined as 2.72 (for males) and 19.36 (for females).

Conclusion: Induction criteria for still-growing youth (boys less than 21-year old and girls less than 19-year old) should be based on percentiles rather than measured heights. Full Text PDF
Related Presentation: Mathematics in the Life Sciences PDF

 

J46: Possible Validation of Mathematical Definition of Childhood Obesity based on Anthropometric Data Collected during 1998-2013
Work done at: The NGDS Pilot Project, PO Box 8423, Karachi 75270,Pakistan
Kamal SA, Naz AA, Ansari SA,
International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 14 (2), 2017, 219-235

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Childhood obesity appears, when there develops a discrepancy between energy intake and expenditure, causing to disturb the original steady state and formation of a fresh steady state at a higher level, which results in increased body-fat storage. Balance needs to be created between tissue synthesis (height gain) and fat storage (mass gain) in order to avoid children becoming obese. There are a number of definitions of childhood obesity given by various researchers, notable among them are those working with the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG). During 2013-2017, the First- to the Fifth-Generation Solutions of Childhood Obesity were proposed by our group. The last one consisted of a mathematical definition of childhood obesity. It related the logical definition, ‘a child is considered to be obese if the incumbent is recommended to lose net weight during a course of the next 6 months based on the youngster’s mass-management goals generated from Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap’ to the mathematical criterion, ‘a child is classified as obese if the difference between the youngster’s mass percentile (at the most-recent checkup) and reference percentile exceeds +15’. This paper explores the proposed mathematical definition by applying this criterion to anthropometric data collected during 15 years ending in 2013. Data were investigated by changing the value of difference around +15. Best results were obtained when the parameter was set equal to +15. Out of 1183 children (302 males, 881 females), 124 had the difference greater than +15. Among these 124 children, 38 showed true obesity according to the logical definition. Full Text PDF  

Additional File 1: Checkup Protocols PDF

Additional File 2: Measurement of Height and Mass PDF (step-by-step protocols illustrated through labeled pictures of procedures as well as common mistakes condensed from Manual for Obtaining Anthropometric Measurements PDF)

Additional File 3: Detailed Calculations of M. E.'s Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap PDF

Additional File 4: Lifestyle Adjustment, Diet and Exercise Plans PDF

Additional File 5: Algorithm PDF

 

J45: In Search of a Definition of Childhood Obesity

The Fifth-Generation Solution of childhood-obesity problem
Work done at: The NGDS Pilot Project, PO Box 8423, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA,
International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 14 (1), 2017, 49-67

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Childhood obesity is manifested when there develops a discrepancy between intake and output of energy, disturbing the original steady state and formation of a fresh steady state at a higher level, resulting in increased body-fat storage. There needs to be a delicate balance established between tissue synthesis (height gain) and fat storage (mass gain) in order to prevent obesity. Various definitions of childhood obesity have been proposed. During 1995-2001, Poskitt, representing European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG), tried to deal with this issue. In a 1995 paper, she expressed concern over lack of childhood-obesity definition. In 2000, she mentioned that the concept of relative body-mass index (BMI) had been generally accepted. In 2001, she observed that BMI could not be considered as offering the ‘best’ definition, although it might be ‘useful’ and ‘practical’. In 2000 Cole and co-workers linked childhood obesity to adult-obesity-cutoff point (BMI 30 kg/m2). In a 2010 paper, Flegal and co-workers gave 3 BMI-for-age categories: ‘normal’, ‘intermediate’ and ‘high’. The first one most unlikely, whereas the last one most likely, to have high adiposity. In a 2011 paper, Rolland-Cachera and co-workers, on behalf of ECOG, defined 3 cutoffs of BMI, constituting four ranges: ‘thin’, ‘normal’, ‘overweight’ and ‘obese’. During the same year, Zhao and Grant defined obesity as excess of body fat. In a 2015 paper, Al-Gindan and co-workers expressed the opinion that most national-survey analyses equating BMI in excess of 30 kg/m2 with ‘obesity’ led to survey-data misinterpretation. This paper puts forward the point-of-view that ‘overweight’ must be differentiated from ‘overfat’. One needs a definition based, solely, on measurement of mass, not measurement of fat, which is difficult to obtain in a reproducible manner. Childhood obesity has been defined as the condition in which a youngster is required to shed off net mass at the end of 6-month period as compared to current mass based on ‘Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap’ recommendations. In this work, ‘BMI-based-optimal mass’ is compared with ‘height-percentile-based-optimal mass’ and mathematical relationship is proposed for losing net mass within the next 6 months.
Full Text (5th-Generation Solution of Childhood Obesity) PDF
Additional File 1: Checkup Protocols PDF
Additional File 2: Detailed Calculations of M. E.'s Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap PDF

Additional File 3: Graphical Representation and Color Scheme PDF

Related Presentation: Streamlining Various Definitions of Childhood Obesity PDF

Abstracts of Journal Papers (1980-1989) (1990-1999) (2000-2009) (2010-2013) (2014-2016)

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November 1, 2018 (0000h UTC) 

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