Abstracts of Journal Papers (2014-2016)

Abstracts of Journal Papers (1980-1989) (1990-1999)
(2000-2009) (2010-2013) (2017-)

2016 2015 2014


2016

J44: Pedagogical Challenges and Opportunties in Sports
and Anthromathematics

Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road,
Karachi 75270,
Pakistan

Kamal SA,  Journal of Education and Research, 4, 2016,
1-30

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This paper describes pedagogical challenges and opportunities existing in ‘Program of Sport and Anthromathematics’. Anthromathematics is the mathematics of human body sizes, forms, shapes and proportions, which was, formally, launched on
March 22, 2010. The scheme of studies consists of formal teaching, examinations (exploring correctness of concepts and learning of techniques) and projects (non-formal development of skills). Formal teaching is based on problem-solving approach. Classroom-problem solving prepares the student to laboratory-problem solving, which, in turn, is a precursor to field-study- and industrial-problem solving. Quizzes and examinations are designed with a changed layout, SOPs prepared for invigilators and grading system simplified to reduce time for checking a script to around 4 minutes.  Projects train the students in research-proposal preparation, planning of study, conduct of study, analysis of data using mathematical-statistical techniques and interpretation of results. The anthropometric measurements (height, mass, mid-upper-arm circumference) obtained during the conduct of project offer a wealth of learning opportunities in various disciplines — biology, chemistry, engineering, health and safety, mathematics, physics and Quranic studies. The goal is to change student’s perspective and attitude towards the subject at the same time refining concepts and perfecting techniques. Full Text PDF  Additional File 1: Sample Course Plan and course Outline PDF
Additional File 2: SOPs for Invigilators, Sample Examination Paper and Solution PDF

Additional File 3: Sample Quiz, Hourly and Solutions PDF

Additional File 4: Preparing Research Proposal including Sample Template PDF

Additional File 5: Projects Completed by Students of Anthromathematics Group PDF

Related Paper: From Mathematics to Technology: A Bridge through Physics and Engineering PDF

Related Presentation: Mathematics in the Life Sciences PDF

Related Presentation: Research Empowering Teaching for Community Outreach PDF


J43: Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmaps of the Pakistani Children
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Naz AA, Ansari SA, International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 13 (4), 2016, 651-671

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Obesity is becoming global problem among youngsters, with rise in incidence of childhood obesity throughout the world. This paper fine-tunes earlier mathematical solutions of childhood obesity, proposed during 2013-2016, by fitting a parabolic curve to desired percentile trajectories originating at the age of the most-recent checkup and terminating at 10 years (lower limit of the peripubertal phase). Both height and mass percentiles are made to approach the reference percentile (maximum of height percentile at the most-recent checkup, the mid-parental percentile, computed from the target height, and the army-cutoff percentile, 2.72 for the Pakistani boys and 19.36 for the Pakistani girls), as the child nears 10th birthday. As compared to ‘Growth-and-Obesity Scalar-Roadmap’, proposed last year, which tries to cover up height and mass deficiencies within half-a-year, ‘Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap’, proposed in this paper, sets up softer targets for height and mass management during a time span of 6 months. These targets are expected to avoid unwanted stress on the body a youngster and are in harmony with the fact that height gain represents tissue synthesis and must be managed through a process, which is quasi-static. ‘Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap’ is constructed from a series of height and mass measurements to least counts of 0.005 cm and 0.005 kg, respectively, by reproducible anthopometrists following laid-down, standardized protocols — child barefoot, stripped to short underpants, elbows and knees not flexed, instructed to inhale completely. These measurements are fed in software to generate profiles for each checkup from the first to the most-recent using ‘Extended CDC Growth Charts and Tables’, which have heights and masses listed for extreme percentiles — 0.01th, 0.1th and 1st as well as 99th, 99.9th and 99.99th, in addition to entries between 3rd and 97th percentiles. Values of height and mass percentiles at age of the most-recent checkup as well as the reference percentile are substituted in mathematical framework of the vector model to draw the desired percentile trajectories. Height- and mass-month-wise targets are determined by reading off values, where these trajectories intersect with lines parallel to the percentile (vertical) axis. These lines cross the age (horizontal) axis at the ages for which targets are proposed.
 
Full Text (4th-Generation Solution of Childhood Obesity) PDF

Additional File 1: Protocols for the Checkups PDF
Additional File 2: Growth-and-Obesity Scalar-Roadmap (Complete Report) PDF

Additional File 3: Growth-and-Obesity Vector-Roadmap (Complete Report) PDF

Related Presentation: 4th-Generation Solution of Childhood Obesity PDF

J42: Mathematical Modeling of Scoliosis Indicators in Growing Children
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Raza SK, Sarwar M, International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 13 (3), 2016, 471-484

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Scoliosis is a disease, which distorts body shape and is associated with many complications if left untreated. Idiopathic scoliosis, generally, becomes evident around the age of 8 years. A two-minute-unclothed examination of primary school students may alert the pediatric orthopedist to early-warning signals, which are expressed as a mathematical index, named as ‘Normalized-Scoliosis-Risk Weightage’ (NSRW). NSRW is a modification of index proposed earlier, ‘Cumulative-Scoliosis-Risk Weightage’ (CSRW) and is expressed as a percentage. This new index is insensitive to number of tests included to compute its value and hence could be compared for different sessions, having a varying number of tests. Both NSRW and CSRW are based on family history, age, statuses of being tall and/or wasted, forward-bending tests, non-alignment of plumb-line, shoulder drooping, uneven scapulae, back-midline shape, unequal body triangles, uneven spinal dimples and positive moiré/dotted-raster. A high NSRW calls for a through physical examination ruling out scoliosis-like conditions, e. g., leg-length inequality and hip weakness, before sending the child for X rays. This is necessary to reduce unwarranted X rays, which are harmful to bone marrow of growing youngsters
. A mathematical model is proposed and tested on seven- and eight-year old students of a local school to separate scoliosis-like conditions from true scoliosis (lateral curvatures and rotations of the spinal column), ‘Differential-Spinal-Function Testing’ (DSFT) was conducted, consisting of four tests, visual (standing), visual (sitting), forward bending (standing) and forward bending (sitting). This paper reports effectiveness of NSRW in predicting lateral curvatures and spinal rotations.
Full Text PDF

J41: Gait Analysis of 7-10-Year-Old Children of Karachi from Nutritional-Status Perspective
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Rajput MK, Ansari SA, International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 13 (1), 2016, 13-25

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Gait analysis of a child is becoming more and more significant as observation of posture of a stripped child may generate false positives as the incumbent becomes conscious and assumes an abnormal posture. On the other hand, observing gait of an undressed child walking or running a number of steps may give clues to underlying musculoskeletal or neurological disorders. In this work, results of a study on a sample of 7-10-year-old students (68 boys; 65 girls), enrolled in a local school representing middle-class-educated families, are presented. The students were followed up from KG to class 3 (2011-2013). Heights and weights were obtained every year and a detailed gait examination was performed in classes 2 and 3, with the students completely disrobed except short underpants. A detailed Growth-and-Obesity Profile was generated for each child to determine the nutritional-status category (under-nutrition, over-nutrition, energy-channelization I-III), in which the child should be placed. The probability of spastic gait was found to be highest in children exhibiting energy-channelization II (stunting combined with obesity), i. e., 32.00%, seconded by those manifesting energy-channelization I (tallness combined with wasting), i. e., 21.43%. Over-nourished (tallness combined with obesity) children had 10.00% probability of having spastic gait, whereas under-nourished (stunting combined with wasting) children had 8.82% probability. Acutely malnourished children (both height and mass percentiles falling below 3) had 14.29% probability. A possible explanation of these results may be on the basis of asymmetric distribution of mass about the sagittal plane, which may create a torque responsible for spastic gait in such children.
Full Text PDF

Additional File: Anatomical and Physiological Terms PDF


2015

 

J40: Acute Malnutrition in a Child Suffering from Cardiac Problems
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 12 (4), 2015, 585-600

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This paper reports the case of a girl, whose growth-and-obesity pattern was followed up during the age range 6.47-8.53 years, who was suffering from Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect. She underwent 3 cardiac surgeries, when she was 5-day, 5-year and 7-year old. She showed signs of ‘Failure-to-Grow’, with both height and mass percentiles lying below 3rd throughout the period of observation. She presented with a case of acute malnutrition with a small built. There were pseudo gains of height (physical gain with drop in percentile) from 2nd to 4th checkup, physical loss of mass between 2nd and 3rd checkup. A new index, Severity of Acute Malnutrition, is introduced, which is computed by multiplying the difference of unity and one-sixth of sum of percentiles of height and mass with 100 to give a percentage. This index increased from 47.67% to 58.00% (1st to 4th checkup), with a drop at 2nd checkup. Month-wise targets to attain specific heights and masses (on specific dates of a given month) as well as guidelines for lifestyle adjustment accompanied with diet and guarded-graduated exercise plans are provided for the child. Similar month-wise targets to shed off mass for father and put on mass for mother are given with associated lifestyle-adjustment guidelines as well as diet and exercise plans. This work, also, gives a short review of heart-function modeling, nutritional-status classification, classification of built and methods of generating ‘Growth-and-Obesity Roadmaps’ of a family prior to describing the clinical problem.  Full Text PDF  Additional File: Color-Coding Keys PDF


J39: Designing Curricula of Mathematics, which Produce Leader-Integrator of Tomorrow
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Journal of Education and Research,
3, 2015, 11-42
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This paper initiates discussion and critique of mathematics-curriculum designing in the Pakistani setting. The curriculum and the associated pedagogical techniques should cultivate habits of creative thinking and critical analysis and create a mindset to be able to resolve conflicts. Various aspects of curriculum development — philosophy, contents and pedagogical techniques — should be integrated. Philosophical basis of the education system should make the student to become a manager of resources of the universe (not a thief). The curriculum should, not only, train, but also, educate student. Emphasis is placed on concept building and technique developing. The curricula developed should give equal importance to moral upbringing, intellectual upbringing and physical upbringing. There should be a system of follow through and follow up through feedback from students, lecture/tutorial/problem-solving-session observation by senior teachers and videotaped lecture/tutorial/problem-solving-session evaluation by experts. The curricula should, not only, increase IQ, but also, develop emotional intelligence (EQ) and ability to portray vision as well as communication and networking skills. The students should be trained in the sound style of leadership (commit and contribute), making the incumbent realize the 3 components of an organization — structure, culture and development. Curricula of the final year of each certificate or degree program should have components, which help the graduates seek jobs, by training them, not only, in the technical (subject) skills, but also, in the performance (managerial) skills as well as the innovative (out-of-the-box thinking) skills through behavior-based interviewing techniques. Revised curricula of Department of Mathematics, University of Karachi for MA/MSc, MPhil and PhD are presented.  Full Text PDF
Additional File: Interview Format for Teaching Assistants in Mathematics PDF

J38: Optimal-Mass Management in Obese Children
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA,
International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 12 (3), 2015 (in press)
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This paper proposes an objective criterion for shedding off or putting on mass (weight) in marginally obese children. With increasing awareness of childhood obesity among community-health workers, pediatricians, nutritionists, teachers and parents, efforts are made to reduce mass based on the current obesity profile of a child. However, this approach fails to take into account the fact that a child, by the very nature of age group under study, is gaining height at the same time trying to manage mass through a combination of diet, exercise and lifestyle adjustment (optimization approach). Optimal mass was defined in 2011 by the author as the mass corresponding to percentile of height. Hence, a child should momentarily achieve optimal mass when mass-percentile trajectory crosses height-percentile trajectory. However, for the purpose of maintaining optimal mass, not only, the values, but also, the slopes of height- and mass-percentile trajectories must match (dynamical-system approach). This paper follows height and mass trajectories of a girl in the age range 5.88-9.44 years and illustrates the need for gaining mass instead of reducing, although she was marginally obese at her last checkup. To help achieve the goal of optimal-mass management, month-wise targets to attain specific heights and masses (on specific dates of a given month) as well as lifestyle adjustment, diet and exercise plans are provided.
Full Text (3rd-Generation Solution of Childhood Obesity) PDF

J37: Hairstyle, Footwear and Clothing for Gymnastic Activities in the Primary-School Setting
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Khan SA,
Pamukkale Journal of Sports Sciences, 6 (3), 2015, 29-45
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The authors recommend gymnastic kits for primary classes, while considering drawbacks of existing clothing choices. Safety, ease of changing, cost, weather considerations and social constraints were put together to propose a practical gym kit for school-based gymnastic activities. Age-wise recommendations are given for activity-appropriate hairstyle, footwear and clothing for primary classes for both indoor and outdoor sessions. Gymnastics should be done barefoot (indoors) and in pure-cotton socks and plimsolls (sneakers) outdoors, where barefoot exercises are not possible, with boys, unclothed from waist up, in briefs, legs uncovered from upper thighs to feet, or figure-hugging half pants, reaching just below knees; girls, unclothed from waist up, in knickers (panties), legs uncovered from upper thighs to feet, or leotard (with stockings, if desired). Girls should tie their long hair in the form of (hair) bun to expose the upper-neck area. Boys should be required to wear athletic supporters under briefs. For training sessions, students are grouped in sections A, B and C — small children (sum of percentiles of height and mass below 50) placed in section A, children of medium built (sum 50 or above but below 150) in section B and big children (sum 150 or above) in section C. Within a section and its sub-sections, a uniform dress code should be implemented for participating in gymnastic practices.  Full Text PDF

 

J36: Effective Decision Making for Presence of Scoliosis
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Sarwar M, Razzaq UA, International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 12 (2), 2015, 321-332
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Scoliosis, a body-disfiguring disease, is associated with lateral curvatures and rotations of a person’s spine. It is, generally, detectable around the age of 8 years. A two-minute-stripped-orthopedic examination of students, in the age group seven- to ten-years, may alert the health-care provider to early-warning signals, which are expressed as a mathematical index, named as ‘Cumulative-Scoliosis-Risk Weightage (CSRW)’. CSRW is based on family history, age, statuses of being tall and/or wasted, forward-bending tests, non-alignment of plumb-line, shoulder drooping, uneven scapulae, shape of midline of back, unequal body triangles, uneven spinal dimples and positive moiré. A high CSRW calls for further examination before sending the child for X rays. Effective methods are needed to eliminate need for unnecessary X rays, which damage bone marrow of children
. A mathematical model is proposed and tested on seven- and eight-year old students of a local school. Four tests were conducted, visual (standing), visual (sitting), forward bending (standing) and forward bending (sitting) — postural problem suspected through positive visual examinations (standing and sitting), indicated through positive mid-stretching test; leg-length in-equality suspected though positive visual and forward-bending tests (both standing), indicated through uneven spinal dimples; hip weakness suspected though positive visual and forward-bending tests (both sitting), indicated through positive Tredelenburg sign; spinal rotation suspected through positive forward-bending tests (standing and sitting), indicated through positive moiré. This paper reports effectiveness of CSRW in predicting lateral curvatures and spinal rotations.  Full Text PDF

J35: Generating and Validating Growth-and-Obesity Roadmaps for the Pakistani Children
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Ansari SA, Jamil SS, International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 12 (1), 2015, 47-61
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Growth-and-Obesity Profiles of a family gave percentiles of height, mass, optimal mass and status, indicating obesity or wasting as percentage, for all family members. Additionally, for children, target height, current-age-mid-parental height and status, indicating tallness or stunting as percentage, were calculated. To compute parents‘ obesity profiles, gender-specific heights and masses were used to interpolate respective percentiles using age-20 values. Either parent was suggested to gain mass, if optimal mass exceeded actual mass. In case, value of optimal mass was lesser than actual mass, father was advised to reduce mass corresponding to that difference, provided the value was less than 10 kilograms, otherwise he should shed off 10 kilograms within the next 6 months. For mothers, currently married or recently divorced/widowed, the recommended suggestion to lose mass was computed by adding 5 kilograms to their mass, to account for possible pregnancy and the associated fetal mass. Up to the age of 30 years, optimal mass was taken as the mass corresponding to height percentile. For individuals older than 30 years, body-mass index (BMI) was considered to be the reference, computed by dividing mass in kilograms by square of height in meters. Optimal mass was determined by multiplying square of height with the ideal BMI value (24 kilogram/meter2). Linear interpolation was employed to compute target-height percentile. Box interpolation was used to determine child‘s height/mass percentiles. A comparison of optimal mass with actual mass determined whether the child was wasted or obese. A similar procedure was adopted to compute current-age-mid-parental height. Comparison of child‘s height with gender-specific-mid-parental height at current age indicated whether the child was tall or stunted. When more than one profile (each profile representing a checkup) was available, Growth-and-Obesity Roadmap was generated. This roadmap included month-wise recommendations to pick up height and put on or lose mass (weight). These recommendations were generated from the most-recent profile, in such a way that a child was not required to lose more than 10 kilograms within the next 6 months, in order to avoid any adverse health effects from a rapid loss of mass.  Full Text PDF  Related Presentation: 1st-Generation Solution of Childhood Obesity PDF

Related Presentation: 2nd-Generation Solution of Childhood Obesity PDF
 

2014

J34: KJ–Regression Model to Compute Optimal Masses of Extreme Cases
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Jamil SS,
International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 11 (4), 2014, 623-648
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Optimal mass (weight) was defined in 2011 as the mass (weight) corresponding to percentile of height. Status of obesity was determined as percentage, by considering optimal mass as reference and could be used in conjunction with body-mass index (BMI) to classify an individual as obese or wasted.  This work puts forward a regression model (named as KJ-Regression Model) to evaluate optimal masses of children and adults, whose heights and masses lie below third percentile or above ninety-seventh percentile. For such cases, CDC growth charts, converted into tabular form, cannot be used to determine numerical values of percentiles. Sigmoid function and linear interpolation were used to compute heights and masses corresponding to extreme percentiles (below 3rd or above 97th). In addition to growth curves (plots of height and mass versus age), which include plots corresponding to 0.01th, 0.1th, 1st, 99th, 99.9th and 99.99th percentiles, mathematical formulae are given to compute heights and masses corresponding to any value of percentile (between zero and hundred). Height and mass tables for boys and girls with entries to 5 decimal places, including those corresponding to extreme percentiles, are given in additional files.  Full Text PDF 

Additional File 1: Mathematics and Statistics PDF  Additional File 2: Selected Profiles PDF

Additional File 3: Extended Growth tables and Extended Growth Charts (larger size) PDF

 

J33: Primary-Physical-Education Practices in Pakistan and England: Health and Safety Perspectives
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Khan SA,
International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 11 (2&3), 2014, 401-419
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This paper initiates discussion and critique of teaching and curriculum relating to English and Pakistani primary-school-physical-education practices and their implications on school health. In most English primary schools, PE is co-educational. Students do athletics, dance, games, gymnastics and swimming. Majority has PE kit, but a significant minority has students undress to underwear. In Pakistan, most public sector schools have single-gender PE, which is not the case in private schools. Main activities include games and athletics. On PE days, students wear PE kit. They attend classes in the same outfit. We recommend gender-segregated PE starting from class one after clearing pre-participation-head-to-toe-physical examination. End-of-the-term evaluation should integrate unclothed-physical examination with fitness testing. Tests should evaluate health- as well as skill-related fitness.  Developmentally appropriate curricula should consist of guarded-graduated training routines, enhancing body image. Students must wear activity-appropriate clothing and shoes. Gymnastics should be done barefoot with boys stripped-to-waist in briefs or figure hugging half-pants, covering knees, girls stripped-to-waist in panties (knickers) or leotard (with stockings, if desired). Exercises and diet-plans to increase height and reduce/gain weight are suggested. Health issues taken up are obesity due to inactivity, vitamin-D deficiency owing to reduced exposure of skin to sunshine and bone damage attributed to wet clothing worn. Remedial measures are proposed. Full Text PDF

 

J32: Stunting Induced by Wasting — Wasting Induced by Stunting: A Case Study
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Jamil SS, Razzaq UA, International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 11 (1), 2014, 147-153
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Background: Stunting and wasting are accepted, widely, as health-risk indicators of individuals at micro level, and that of population at macro level. These two conditions, when present together in a child, are the early-warning signals in the context of health-and-nutrition status. However, link between stunting and wasting has been rarely studied.
Case Presentation: Association between the two conditions was observed in 2 sisters (QJ and JJ), who were registered in SF Laboratory’s growth-monitoring program. They were part of a family, consisting of father, mother, 3 daughters and a son. This family was monitored for a period of 4 years (2007-2011), through anthropometric measurements
of all 4 siblings. Height- and mass-data analysis indicated that wasting, present for a longer period, in the elder sister (QJ) may be the cause of a marked drop in height, while the anthropometric-data analysis of the younger one, JJ, gave some evidence in favor of wasting being induced by stunting.
Mathematical Model: Mathematical-statistical model, given by Kamal, Firdous and Alam in 2004, was modified to study the cases presented. Concepts of growth (height) velocity and mass (weight) gain (loss) were abandoned and replaced by trajectories as well as height and mass percentiles. A jumping up (down) on these trajectories represented ‘real-gain (-loss)’. A physical gain in height (mass) over a certain period, accompanied by a drop in percentile during the same period was interpreted as ‘pseudo-gain’.
Conclusion: This family’s data highlighted stunting, induced by wasting and wasting, induced by stunting. Besides investigating association between stunting and wasting, we, also, tried to find out the underlying mechanisms and discover the agents causing the two conditions. Longitudinal studies should focus on physiological and psychological bases of the potential relations of childhood stunting and wasting, starting from conception and following children till old age, in particular, looking for prevalence of stunting (with associated wasting) in a community and vice versa.
Full Text PDF  Additional File 1: Project Protocols and Model PDF
Additional File 2: Growth-and-Obesity Profiles of J. Family PDF


Abstracts of Journal Papers (1980-1989) (1990-1999) (2000-2009) (2010-2013) (2017-)

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