**Abstracts of Conference Papers (1980-1989)****
**Abstracts of Conference Papers

(1970-1979) (1990-1999) (2000-2009) (2010-2013) (2014-)

1989 1988 1987 1986 1983 1982 1981 1980

Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

(Second Seminar, March 1987)

KA, Karachi, Pakistan, 1989, pp 77-82

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Solutions of the Einstein equation governing the dynamical evolution of universe were obtained in a simple way

for matter-dominated era in the standard model. Physical implications of specific parameter values were discussed. Paper PDF

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Recently, a covariant model of global electrocortical activity was developed and a generalized coupling was suggested. Moiré topographs and rasterstereographs of back as well as EEGs of controls and epileptics were studied before and after a seizure during the

University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 1988

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Moiré fringe topography is a noninvasive, inexpensive and simple optical technique, which provides a three-dimensional map of the human body. The technique of moiré topography consisted of photographing the part of body to be studied through a specially constructed screen. Dark fringes were produced because of the presence of screen. The study of these fringes may have valuable information about neurological disorders through study

of posture and gait in conditions such as cerebral palsy.

Siddiqui KA,

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Hundreds of students take physics in schools and at intermediate (pre-university) levels and they perform well, but they do not come up to the mark in the universities. It suggests a gap of knowledge among the university requirements and the school training of physics in Pakistan. The absence of modern physics in our introductory courses and the non-availability of adequately trained teachers may be the reasons of failure to train good students. This paper reviewed the existing curriculum, teaching methods and facilities, teachers-training

programs and suggested methods to improve upon them. The recommendations of the two workshops on

physics teaching held in Karachi (December 6-7, 1985 and December 27-28, 1986) have, also, been

incorporated. Paper PDF

Bukhari N,

Karachi, Pakistan, 1987, pp 38-50 — corresponding author

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Fundamental units in the International System of units (SI) were explained. The natural units used in high-

energy physics were described. Different systems used in electromagnetism (SI, esu, emu, Gaussian) were,

also, discussed as well as the interconversion of equations written in either SI or Gaussian system. Paper PDF

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Moiré topography was applied to obtain quantitative information about the multiple curves (

A mathematical formulation was proposed to measure the degree of correction of trunk deformity. Paper PDF

C25: Physics Makes the Deaf and the Dumb Equations of Mathematics to Speak

Siddiqui KA,

Karachi, Pakistan, December 27, 28, 1986, pp 40-49 — corresponding author

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Issac Asimov remarks: As for mathematicians, that was particularly the tool of physicists, and as the research into first principles became more subtle and basic, it became, nearly, impossible to differential between the

“pure mathematician” and the “theoretical physicist’. There is, however, a difference between thinking of the above persons. A pure mathematician, mainly, works with an abstract set of axioms and tries to build a consistent theory based on these axioms. These axioms are

and conjectures based on experimental evidence. Therefore, we notice that physics relates the abstract mathematical equations to down-to-earth problems as such makes “the deaf and the dumb equations of mathematics to speak”. A few mathematical equations and the physics behind them were discussed. Paper PDF

Karachi, Pakistan, December 27, 28, 1986, pp 51-56

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Physics relates the abstract mathematical equations to real-life problems. A few examples to develop creative thinking and critical analysis were presented. Paper PDF

**1983
**

pp 117-126

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Degree of correction of spinal deformity was defined in terms of three dimensional angles of spinal curvature in the anatomical and the hanging positions. Paper PDF

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Orthopedic problems cannot, always, be detected by inspection and physical examination only. Full-length, standing X rays, taken many times during the sensitive age period would result in too much radiation exposure

to children. Moiré fringe topography, which is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and simple, can minimize the exposure.

It can provide the measurement of angle of spinal curvature with acceptable accuracy. The technique of moiré topography consists of photographing the part of body to be studied through a specially-constructed screen. Dark fringes are produced on the body because of the presence of screen. Since, only ordinary photographs are taken, there is no exposure to radiation. By studying asymmetry of these fringes, considerable information about scoliosis and kyphosis has been obtained. The angle of spinal curvature in two and three dimensions can, also,

be determined from moiré topographs. The possibility of physiotherapeutic improvements of back deformity can, now, be quantitatively determined by taking moiré topographs of a patient in anatomical and hanging positions. Paper PDF

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An experiment was proposed to test the models dealing with the behavior of massive particles near and beyond the speed of light. In the model of faster-than-light particles, presented by the author, mass was a periodic function of velocity,

as opposed to classical
relativity, in which the relationship takes the shape

To test these models an impulse
should be applied to 200 *GeV* electrons. Final energy and momentum are to
be measured. If the final momentum is different is different from the initial
momentum and energy remains

constant, the first relationship is verified. Paper PDF

**C20: Modifications in
Electrical Typewriters and Computer Terminals
**

(poster presentation)

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A uniform typing speed cannot be maintained on electrical typewriters if the elements have to be changed many times. Connecting them on a cylinder at equal distances could automatically, change the elements. A lever attached to the keyboard should be able to rotate the cylinder and change the element. The element, which is free to rotate about its axis, is now connected to the circuit of keyboard. The keyboard entries can be changed to correspond to the element in use by employing display-type keyboard like the one used in calculators and electronic watches. The same technique can be used for computer-terminal keyboard so that Greek letters and other symbols could, directly, be printed on the screen. By introducing a change in software and hardware components, equations containing Greek letters and mathematical symbols can be printed as used in calculations. Paper PDF

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An error of 0.2 to 0.5

El-Sayyad MM,

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Moiré
topography has proved very useful for the detection and the documentation of scolosis. Moiré technique consisted of
photographing the body part to be studied through a specially-constructed
screen. Dark fringes

were produced on the body by the presence of screen.
Since, we studied a three-dimensional object (human body), holographic image of
the human body through the screen was a better way of recording information. A
helium-neon laser of 1.0 *milliwatt* maximum output with a beam splitter
was used to obtain holographic moiré fringes. This was a class II laser, which
complied with the safety requirements pursuant to 21 CFR, Chapter 1, Subchapter
J. Ordinary moiré photographs showed a lack of sharpness of fringes away from
the central line. Holographic moiré topography was free from this problem.Paper PDF

C17: A New Process for Patient Alignment

*Work done
at: **INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA*

**Kamal SA**, *Bulletin of the American Physical Society* **27 (3)**, 1982, abstract#GY16, p 301 (poster pre-sentation)

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Proper patient alignment is necessary for moiré
topography. To align the patient a 10 ´ 10 *cm* mirror
(M) was fixed to two plastic strips (cf.

Figure 1). The strips were provided with a belt so that they can be attached to
patient’s sides, mirror in the pelvic area. The *z* (longitudinal) axis was
taken perpendicular to floor (positive sense upward), the *y*
(posteroanterior) axis perpendicular to the attached mirror, passing through
its midpoint. The *x* axis was, now, fixed according to right-hand rule. A
10 ´ 10 *cm *wooden
plate (P) was held fixed 20 cm away from the mirror, parallel to the *xz*
plane. Two lamps were mounted on the wooden plate, the first (L1) lying in the *yz*
plane (tilted toward the negative *z* axis), and the other (L2) in the *xy*
plane (tilted towards the negative *y* axis). The locations, where the
lamps L1 and L2 were attached to the plate were labeled as *P* and *Q*,
respectively. The lights from both of these lamps fell on the mirror and
reflected back on the scale. The reflected spots from L1 and L2 were labeled as
*Q* and *S*, respectively.
The patient was ready for moiré topography when *PQ* became
parallel to *z* axis and *RS* to *x* axis. The process presented
in this paper was simple, easy to perform and inexpensive. Paper PDF

**C16: Moiré Topography for the Measurement of Angle
of Spinal Curvature in Three Dimensions**

*Work
done at: **INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA*

**Kamal SA**, *Bulletin of the American Physical Society* **27 (3)**, 1982, abstract#GY15, p 301 (poster pre-sentation)

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Cobb angle can be measured from two-dimensional X rays (cf. Figure 2). It gives
information about scoliosis. If there is kyphosis or lordosis in addition to
scoliosis, it is necessary to define three-dimensional angle. In this paper,
three-dimensional angle was defined in terms of direction cosines of the spinal
column. A relation was derived connecting three-dimensional angle to Cobb
angle. The spinal deformity may be partially or completely corrected by asking
the patient to hang freely. After guarded-graduated-passive correction (term coined by Mohsin M El-Sayyad), three-dimensional angle could be measured from anteroposterior (AP) and lateral X rays. The angle between the old and the new spinal
positions could, therefore, be calculated. The degree of deformity was defined
in terms of this angle. Cobb angle could, also, be measured from moiré
topographs. This paper gave a method to measure three-dimensional angle by
moiré topographs. Paper PDF

**C15: Effective Mass in the Relativistic Range
Work done
at: **

(poster presentation)

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Effective-mass notion has been used in the band theory of solids for long time. We obtained effective mass of any particle using the general expression of force in covariant form valid for the relativistic range. In the relativistic range, the effective mass could be written as

This
reduced to the expression

when
non-relativistic approximation was applied in the force equation

Paper PDF

**C14: Generalization of
the Covariant-Effective-Mass Tensor
**

(poster presentation)

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The expression of effective mass in the relativistic range was generalized using the force tensor

which was proportional to

In the relativistic range the
effective mass was obtained as

The
non-relativistic approximation could be obtained by neglecting the term
containing

in the force equation. Assuming
that

_{}_{}

depended on the directions of *k*’s,
the expression could be written as

Effective rest mass was calculated
using the relation

Paper PDF**C13: Beyond the Speed of
Light
**

(poster presentation)

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In contrast to the conventional theories of tachyons (faster-than-light particles) this paper attempted to describe a model based on the symmetry principles of nature. A model having symmetrical distribution of

invariant speeds might leave the speed (2

The model
presented in this paper was Lorentz covariant, did not involve imaginary
quantities, satisfied the symmetry principles of nature, explained the
kinematics of the particles and preserved the definition of

momentum and
energy. Paper PDF

**1981**

**C12: Cobb’s Angle Measurement by Moiré Topographs**

*Work done at: **INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA*

El-Sayyad MM, **Kamal SA**, Proceedings of the Thirty-Fourth
Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology, Houston, USA, volume 23,
1981, abstract#30.7, p 311

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The
purpose of this study was an attempt to obtain information that may help
medical professionals in the rehabilitation of patients with back deformities.
The need for precise and detailed information was evident, when one examined
back deformity and considered possible therapeutic measures to correct or
improve it. The technique of moiré topography consisted of photographing the
part of body to be studied through a specially-constructed screen. Dark fringes
were produced on the body because of the presence of screen. The fringes of
different subjects were compared with the initially-determined standards
established by photographing normal children between the ages of four and seven
years. To obtain the angle of spinal curvature in the case of back deformities,
measurements were performed at the points of maximum and minimum asymmetry of
moiré fringes (cf. Figure 3) and used in the mathematical relation to calculate
the angle. Let q be the angle of spinal curvature (ÐXOY in Figure 3). Joining the midpoint of neck to the midpoint
of waist drew a reference line AB.
From this line, distances to the first visible moiré fringe on both sides were
measured at different points. The position of the spinal column was

assumed to be at the midpoint

of these fringes. From the position of
spine at a given point, distance to line AB
was obtained as d. At the

point of maximum asymmetry C on
line AB, the distance was noted
as d_{1}. At the point
A above the point C, where the
moiré fringes show maximum asymmetry, the distance was d_{2}. At the point B below the point C, where the moiré fringes again show
minimum asymmetry, the distance was d_{3}.
The angle of spinal curvature was, then, given by

The
method and the elaboration reported provided the necessary basis for a correct
prognosis of the evaluation of back deformities. The methodology could be
applied as a routine for large number of children because it takes a reasonably
short time for each of them and this allows a nice screening as a part of
preschool physical examination. The moiré-topographic analysis would, also,
permit the optimization of therapeutic procedures controlling their
effectiveness for each subject. Paper PDF

**C11: Use of Moiré
Topographs for Detection of Orthopedic Defects in Children of Age Group Four toSeven Years
**

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Orthopedic problems cannot, always, be detected by inspection and physical examination only. In order to have

a better judgment, moiré fringe topography was used. Front, rear and side views of 4-7 years old children were taken through a specially-constructed screen. The symmetric and asymmetric patterns of body contours were studied. Study of these contours revealed valuable information for the physicians. It was suggested that moiré topography should be an essential part of pre-school physical examination. Paper PDF

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Special theory of relativity suggests that no massive particle can travel with the velocity of light. This paper discussed the conditions in which a massive particle could travel with the velocity of light. Using free-particle-Dirac equation, uncertainties between velocity and Lorentz factor as well as between velocity and energy of a Dirac electron were calculated. These came out to be nonzero. Therefore, an accurate determination of velocity would make the Lorentz factor and energy indeterminate. For electron energies of 5

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Anthropometric measurements are an essential part of school health examinations. Sometimes it is not practical to take the measurements on body and so the measurements are taken on clothing. There was no mathematical formula available to convert the anthropometric measurements taken on clothing to those taken on body. One of the authors (SAK) derived relations connecting these anthropometric measurements. There was a need to study how accurate were the theoretical predictions. This study was conducted to check the accuracy of the theoretical relations. 10 boys and 6 girls between the ages of 2 and 7 were studied using caliper and micrometer. The breadths and depths of chest, waist, arm and thigh were determined by calipers to one-tenth of centimeter and thickness of clothing measured by micrometer screw gauge to one-hundredth of centimeter. Data collected were fitted to the following equations:

where ‘*b*’, ‘*B*’, and ‘*d*’, ‘*D*’,
were the breadths and the depths taken on body and clothing, respectively, ‘*a*’
was the thickness of clothing. Graphs were plotted between (*B*/2*a*)
and (*b*/2*a*) as well as (*D*/2*a*) and (*d*/2*a*),
which showed straight lines having slopes unity. Therefore, the experimental
results were in agreement with the theoretical relations. This indicated that
the proposed relations were valid and could be used to convert anthropometric
measurements. Paper PDF

**C08: Moiré Topography for Detection of Orthopedic
Defects
Work done
at: **

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Moiré topography was applied for the follow-up of scoliosis patients. The results were, then, compared with

the X rays. A special lamp-and-scale arrangement was utilized for patient alignment. It was suggested that the moiré technique could be used for the detection of all orthopedic defects. Paper PDF

Abstracts of Conference Papers
(1970-1979)
(1990-1999)
(2000-2009)
(2010-2013)
(2014-)

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