Abstracts of Conference Papers (1980-1989)

Abstracts of Conference Papers
(1970-1979) (1990-1999) (2000-2009) (2010-2013) (2014-)             

1989 1988 1987 1986 1983 1982 1981 1980 


1989

C31: Solution of the Einstein Equation in Cosmology
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University
Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

Kamal SA, Proceedings of the Seminars on Albert Einstein
(Second Seminar, March 1987)
, Volume 2, Edited by Siddiqui
KA, Karachi, Pakistan, 1989, pp 77-82

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Solutions of the Einstein equation governing the dynamical evolution of universe were obtained in a simple way
for matter-dominated era in the standard model. Physical implications of specific parameter values were discussed.
Paper PDF

C30: Moiré, Raster and EEG Studies of Epileptics During the Washable-Memory Period
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Akram M, Siddiqui KA, Khan NU, the Seventh International Conference on Biomagnetism, New York University, New York, USA, 1989
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Recently, a covariant model of global electrocortical activity was developed and a generalized coupling was suggested. Moiré topographs and rasterstereographs of back as well as EEGs of controls and epileptics were studied before and after a seizure during the washable-memory period to be able to understand the origin of seizures and to possibly check the validity of our models. In Karachi, our group has constructed a shadow-type moiré frame capable of taking moiré topographs in various positions.
Paper PDF


1988

C29: Moiré Topography for the Study of Neurological Disorders
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Akram M, Bukhari N, the Second National Symposium on Frontiers in Physics, the Quaid-é-Azam
University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 1988
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Moiré fringe topography is a noninvasive, inexpensive and simple optical technique, which provides a three-dimensional map of the human body. The technique of moiré topography consisted of photographing the part of body to be studied through a specially constructed screen. Dark fringes were produced because of the presence of screen. The study of these fringes may have valuable information about neurological disorders through study
of posture and gait in conditions such as cerebral palsy.


1987

C28: A Survey of School and Pre-University Physics Education in Pakistan
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Siddiqui KA, Kamal SA, in Physics Education in Asia (Proceedings of the Regional Physics Education Symposium and the Aspen General Conference, 1986), Edited by Aidid SB, Ismail MZ, Koh AK, Singh MM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1987, pp 81-89
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Hundreds of students take physics in schools and at intermediate (pre-university) levels and they perform well, but they do not come up to the mark in the universities. It suggests a gap of knowledge among the university requirements and the school training of physics in Pakistan. The absence of modern physics in our introductory courses and the non-availability of adequately trained teachers may be the reasons of failure to train good students. This paper reviewed the existing curriculum, teaching methods and facilities, teachers-training
programs and suggested methods to improve upon them. The recommendations of the two workshops on
physics teaching held in Karachi (December 6-7, 1985 and December 27-28, 1986) have, also, been
incorporated. Paper PDF
 
C27: How to Cope with Different Systems of Units?
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Bukhari N, Kamal SA, Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Teaching of Physics, Edited by Hasnain AF,
Karachi, Pakistan, 1987, pp 38-50 — corresponding author
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Fundamental units in the International System of units (SI) were explained. The natural units used in high-
energy physics were described. Different systems used in electromagnetism (SI, esu, emu, Gaussian) were,
also, discussed as well as the interconversion of equations written in either SI or Gaussian system.
Paper PDF

C26: Moiré Topography for the Study of Multiple Curves of Spine
Work done at:
THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
Kamal SA, in Surface Topography and Spinal Deformity (Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium, Mont Sainte Marie, Québec, Canada, 1986), Edited by Stokes IAF, Pekelsky JR, Moreland MS, Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1987, Stuttgart and New York, pp 43-50
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Moiré topography was applied to obtain quantitative information about the multiple curves (i. e., curves in multiple planes) of spine. Techniques were described for estimating angles of spinal curvature from topographs.
A mathematical formulation was proposed to measure the degree of correction of trunk deformity.
Paper PDF


1986

C25: Physics Makes the Deaf and the Dumb Equations of Mathematics to Speak
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Siddiqui KA, Kamal SA, Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Teaching of Physics, Edited by Hasnain AF,
Karachi, Pakistan, December 27, 28, 1986, pp 40-49 — corresponding author
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Issac Asimov remarks: As for mathematicians, that was particularly the tool of physicists, and as the research into first principles became more subtle and basic, it became, nearly, impossible to differential between the
“pure mathematician” and the “theoretical physicist’. There is, however, a difference between thinking of the above persons. A pure mathematician, mainly, works with an abstract set of axioms and tries to build a consistent theory based on these axioms. These axioms are a priori assumed to be correct. A theoretical physicist, also, works with hypotheses and conjectures, but his main criterion is the observable evidence. A model, which provides no verifiable test, is of little interest to physicists. A physicist changes his assumptions
and conjectures based on experimental evidence. Therefore, we notice that physics relates the abstract mathematical equations to down-to-earth problems as such makes “the deaf and the dumb equations of mathematics to speak”. A few mathematical equations and the physics behind them were discussed. Paper PDF
 
C24: How to Develop Creative Thinking and Critical Analysis?
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Siddiqui KA, Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Teaching of Physics, Edited by Hasnain AF,
Karachi, Pakistan, December 27, 28, 1986, pp 51-56
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Physics relates the abstract mathematical equations to real-life problems. A few examples to develop creative thinking and critical analysis were presented.
Paper PDF


1983

C23: Determination of Degree of Correction of Spinal Deformity by Moiré Topographs
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA
Kamal SA, in Moiré Fringe Topography and Spinal Deformity (Proceedings of the Second International Sympo-sium, 1982), Edited by Drerup B, Frobin W, Hierholzer E, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart and New York, 1983,
pp 117-126
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Degree of correction of spinal deformity was defined in terms of three dimensional angles of spinal curvature in the anatomical and the hanging positions.
Paper PDF

C22: Moiré Fringe Topography and the Spinal Deformity
Work done at:
THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
Kamal SA, the National Guard Eighth Saudi Medical Conference, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1983, p 192
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Orthopedic problems cannot, always, be detected by inspection and physical examination only. Full-length, standing X rays, taken many times during the sensitive age period would result in too much radiation exposure
to children. Moiré fringe topography, which is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and simple, can minimize the exposure.
It can provide the measurement of angle of spinal curvature with acceptable accuracy. The technique of moiré topography consists of photographing the part of body to be studied through a specially-constructed screen. Dark fringes are produced on the body because of the presence of screen. Since, only ordinary photographs are taken, there is no exposure to radiation. By studying asymmetry of these fringes, considerable information about scoliosis and kyphosis has been obtained. The angle of spinal curvature in two and three dimensions can, also,
be determined from moiré topographs. The possibility of physiotherapeutic improvements of back deformity can, now, be quantitatively determined by taking moiré topographs of a patient in anatomical and hanging positions.
Paper PDF


1982

C21: An Experimental Test for the Behavior of Massive Particles Near and Beyond the Speed of Light
Work done at:
INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Kamal SA, Bulletin of the American Physical Society 27 (4), 1982, abstract#DYc11, p 503 (poster presentation)
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An experiment was proposed to test the models dealing with the behavior of massive particles
near and beyond the speed of light. In the model of faster-than-light particles, presented by the author, mass was a periodic function of velocity, m(v) = m(v + 2c). An uncertainty factor P(v) was introduced such that P(-v) = P(v) =
P(v + 2c). The factor, P(c) was slightly less than unity. Energy and momentum were, then, continuous and smooth functions. If E represented energy and p momentum, these models yielded

 

 

as opposed to classical relativity, in which the relationship takes the shape

 

 

To test these models an impulse should be applied to 200 GeV electrons. Final energy and momentum are to be measured. If the final momentum is different is different from the initial momentum and energy remains
constant, the first relationship is verified. Paper PDF

 

C20: Modifications in Electrical Typewriters and Computer Terminals
Work done at: INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Kamal SA, Bulletin of the American Physical Society 27(4), 1982, abstract#DYc10, p 503
(poster presentation)
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A uniform typing speed cannot be maintained on electrical typewriters if the elements have to be changed many times. Connecting them on a cylinder at equal distances could automatically, change the elements. A lever attached to the keyboard should be able to rotate the cylinder and change the element. The element, which is free to rotate about its axis, is now connected to the circuit of keyboard. The keyboard entries can be changed to correspond to the element in use by employing display-type keyboard like the one used in calculators and electronic watches. The same technique can be used for computer-terminal keyboard so that Greek letters and other symbols could, directly, be printed on the screen. By introducing a change in software and hardware components, equations containing Greek letters and mathematical symbols can be printed as used in calculations.
Paper PDF

C19: Improvements in Instruments for Anthropometric Measurements
Work done at:
INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Kamal SA, Bulletin of the American Physical Society 27 (4), 1982, abstract#DYc9, p 502 (poster pre-sentation)
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An error of 0.2 to 0.5 cm is introduced in girth (circumference), breadth and height measurements because different people exert different pressures. For girth measurements pressure could be checked by adding sensitive spring balance to the measuring tape. Reading was taken, when the spring balance just started to change from zero. For height and breadth measurements a helium-neon laser beam of 1.0 milliwatt maximum output was used. This was a class II laser, which complied with the safety requirements pursuant to 21 CFR, Chapter 1, Sub-chapter J. Vertical and movable horizontal scales were attached to the wall. A mirror strip was attached to both the scales. The child was asked to stand erect with legs and back touching the wall. A horizontal laser beam was passed through hair and height noted, when the beam was just obstructed. Beam was horizontal, when path of reflected beam was aligned with the incident beam. For measurement of breadth of chest horizontal scale was brought to chest level and two horizontal beams were passed touching the sides. Readings were noted, when the beams were just obstructed.
Paper PDF

C18: The Use of Holographic Techniques to Obtain Moiré Topographic Fringes of the Human Body
Work done at:
INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
El-Sayyad MM, Kamal SA, Bulletin of the American Physical Society 27 (4), 1982, abstract#DYc4, p 502 (poster presentation)
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Moiré topography has proved very useful for the
detection and the documentation of scolosis. Moiré technique consisted of photographing the body part to be studied through a specially-constructed screen. Dark fringes
were produced on the body by the presence of screen. Since, we studied a three-dimensional object (human body), holographic image of the human body through the screen was a better way of recording information. A helium-neon laser of 1.0 milliwatt maximum output with a beam splitter was used to obtain holographic moiré fringes. This was a class II laser, which complied with the safety requirements pursuant to 21 CFR, Chapter 1, Subchapter J. Ordinary moiré photographs showed a lack of sharpness of fringes away from the central line. Holographic moiré topography was free from this problem.Paper PDF

C17: A New Process for Patient Alignment
Work done at:
INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Kamal SA, Bulletin of the American Physical Society 27 (3), 1982
, abstract#GY16, p 301 (poster pre-sentation)
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Proper patient alignment is necessary for moiré topography. To align the patient a 10 ´ 10 cm mirror (M) was fixed to two plastic strips (cf.
Figure
1). The strips were provided with a belt so that they can be attached to patient’s sides, mirror in the pelvic area. The z (longitudinal) axis was taken perpendicular to floor (positive sense upward), the y (posteroanterior) axis perpendicular to the attached mirror, passing through its midpoint. The x axis was, now, fixed according to right-hand rule. A 10 ´ 10 cm wooden plate (P) was held fixed 20 cm away from the mirror, parallel to the xz plane. Two lamps were mounted on the wooden plate, the first (L1) lying in the yz plane (tilted toward the negative z axis), and the other (L2) in the xy plane (tilted towards the negative y axis). The locations, where the lamps L1 and L2 were attached to the plate were labeled as P and Q, respectively. The lights from both of these lamps fell on the mirror and reflected back on the scale. The reflected spots from L1 and L2 were labeled as Q and S, respectively.  The patient was ready for moiré topography when PQ became parallel to z axis and RS to x axis. The process presented in this paper was simple, easy to perform and inexpensive. Paper PDF

C16: Moiré Topography for the Measurement of Angle of Spinal Curvature in Three Dimensions
Work done at: INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Kamal SA, Bulletin of the American Physical Society 27 (3), 1982
, abstract#GY15, p 301 (poster pre-sentation)
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Cobb angle can be measured from two-dimensional X rays (cf. Figure
2). It gives information about scoliosis. If there is kyphosis or lordosis in addition to scoliosis, it is necessary to define three-dimensional angle. In this paper, three-dimensional angle was defined in terms of direction cosines of the spinal column. A relation was derived connecting three-dimensional angle to Cobb angle. The spinal deformity may be partially or completely corrected by asking the patient to hang freely. After guarded-graduated-passive correction (term coined by Mohsin M El-Sayyad), three-dimensional angle could be measured from anteroposterior (AP) and lateral X rays.  The angle between the old and the new spinal positions could, therefore, be calculated. The degree of deformity was defined in terms of this angle. Cobb angle could, also, be measured from moiré topographs. This paper gave a method to measure three-dimensional angle by moiré topographs. Paper PDF

C15: Effective Mass in the Relativistic Range
Work done at:
INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Kamal SA, Husain SA, Bulletin of the American Physical Society 27 (3), 1982, abstract#GY13, p 300
(poster presentation)
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Effective-mass notion has been used in the band theory of solids for long time. We obtained effective mass of any particle using the general expression of force in covariant form valid for the relativistic range. In the relativistic range, the effective mass could be written as

 

 

This reduced to the expression

 

 

when non-relativistic approximation was applied in the force equation

 

Paper PDF

C14: Generalization of the Covariant-Effective-Mass Tensor
Work done at: INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Kamal SA, Husain SA, Bulletin of the American Physical Society 27 (3), 1982, abstract#GY14, p 300
(poster presentation)
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The
expression of effective mass in the relativistic range was generalized using the force tensor

 

 

which was proportional to

 

 

In the relativistic range the effective mass was obtained as

 

 

The non-relativistic approximation could be obtained by neglecting the term containing

 

 

in the force equation. Assuming that

 

 

depended on the directions of k’s, the expression could be written as

 

 

Effective rest mass was calculated using the relation

 

 

Paper PDF

C13: Beyond the Speed of Light
Work done at: INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Kamal SA, Husain SA, Bulletin of the American Physical Society 27 (1), 1982, abstract#GX13, p 33
(poster presentation)
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In contrast to the conventional theories of tachyons (faster-than-light particles) this paper attempted to describe a model based on the symmetry principles of nature.  A model having symmetrical distribution of
invariant speeds might leave the speed (2n – 1)c (n being an integer) invariant. The mass as a function of velocity was, then, a periodic function m(v) = m(v + 2c) for any value of v. This generalized definition of mass satisfied the world-line equation:

 

 

The model presented in this paper was Lorentz covariant, did not involve imaginary quantities, satisfied the symmetry principles of nature, explained the kinematics of the particles and preserved the definition of
momentum and energy.
Paper PDF

 


1981

C12: Cobb’s Angle Measurement by Moiré Topographs
Work done at: INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
El-Sayyad MM, Kamal SA, Proceedings of the Thirty-Fourth Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology, Houston, USA, volume 23, 1981, abstract#30.7, p 311
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The purpose of this study was an attempt to obtain information that may help medical professionals in the rehabilitation of patients with back deformities. The need for precise and detailed information was evident, when one examined back deformity and considered possible therapeutic measures to correct or improve it. The technique of moiré topography consisted of photographing the part of body to be studied through a specially-constructed screen. Dark fringes were produced on the body because of the presence of screen. The fringes of different subjects were compared with the initially-determined standards established by photographing normal children between the ages of four and seven years. To obtain the angle of spinal curvature in the case of back deformities, measurements were performed at the points of maximum and minimum asymmetry of moiré fringes (cf. Figure
3) and used in the mathematical relation to calculate the angle. Let q be the angle of spinal curvature (ÐXOY in Figure 3). Joining the midpoint of neck to the midpoint of waist drew a reference line AB. From this line, distances to the first visible moiré fringe on both sides were measured at different points. The position of the spinal column was
assumed to be at the midpoint
of these fringes. From the position of spine at a given point, distance to line AB was obtained as d. At the
point of maximum asymmetry C on line AB, the distance was noted as d1. At the point A above the point C, where the moiré fringes show maximum asymmetry, the distance was d2. At the point B below the point C, where the moiré fringes again show minimum asymmetry, the distance was d3. The angle of spinal curvature was, then, given by

The method and the elaboration reported provided the necessary basis for a correct prognosis of the evaluation of back deformities. The methodology could be applied as a routine for large number of children because it takes a reasonably short time for each of them and this allows a nice screening as a part of preschool physical examination. The moiré-topographic analysis would, also, permit the optimization of therapeutic procedures controlling their effectiveness for each subject. Paper PDF

C11: Use of Moiré Topographs for Detection of Orthopedic Defects in Children of Age Group Four to
Seven Years
Work done at: INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Kamal SA, El-Sayyad MM, the Twenty-Third Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Boston, USA, 1981 — Presented by the Title; Medical Physics 8, 1981, 549
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Orthopedic problems cannot, always, be detected by inspection and physical examination only. In order to have
a better judgment, moiré fringe topography was used. Front, rear and side views of 4-7 years old children were taken through a specially-constructed screen. The symmetric and asymmetric patterns of body contours were studied. Study of these contours revealed valuable information for the physicians. It was suggested that moiré topography should be an essential part of pre-school physical examination.
Paper PDF

C10: The Possibility of Massive Particles Traveling with the Velocity of Light
Work done at: INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Kamal SA, Bulletin of the American Physical Society 26 (1), 1981, abstract#JF8, p 47
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Special theory of relativity suggests that no massive particle can travel with the velocity of light. This paper discussed the conditions in which a massive particle could travel with the velocity of light. Using free-particle-Dirac equation, uncertainties between velocity and Lorentz factor as well as between velocity and energy of a Dirac electron were calculated. These came out to be nonzero. Therefore, an accurate determination of velocity would make the Lorentz factor and energy indeterminate. For electron energies of 5 GeV and 200 GeV, it was shown that the uncertainty in velocity was greater than the difference between the velocity of light and the velocity expected from relativistic relation for that energy. By quantum-mechanical treatment, it was shown that the probability of existence of particles having v = c was nonzero. The relativistic relation of mass was modified so that mass was non-infinite at v = c in the light of uncertainty relations.
Paper PDF


1980

C09: Experimental Verification of the Relation Connecting Anthropometric Measurements Taken on Clothing to Those Taken on Body
Work done at:
INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Kamal SA, El-Sayyad MM, Proceedings of the Biomechanics Symposium, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA, edited by Cooper JM, Haven B, October 26-28, 1980, p 346 — Poster Presentation
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Anthropometric measurements are an essential part of school health examinations. Sometimes it is not practical to take the measurements on body and so the measurements are taken on clothing. There was no mathematical formula available to convert the anthropometric measurements taken on clothing to those taken on body. One of the authors (SAK) derived relations connecting these anthropometric measurements. There was a need to study how accurate were the theoretical predictions. This study was conducted to check the accuracy of the theoretical relations. 10 boys and 6 girls between the ages of 2 and 7 were studied using caliper and micrometer. The breadths and depths of chest, waist, arm and thigh were determined by calipers to one-tenth of centimeter and thickness of clothing measured by micrometer screw gauge to one-hundredth of centimeter. Data collected were fitted to the following equations:

                 

where ‘b’, ‘B’, and ‘d’, ‘D’, were the breadths and the depths taken on body and clothing, respectively, ‘a’ was the thickness of clothing. Graphs were plotted between (B/2a) and (b/2a) as well as (D/2a) and (d/2a), which showed straight lines having slopes unity. Therefore, the experimental results were in agreement with the theoretical relations. This indicated that the proposed relations were valid and could be used to convert anthropometric measurements. Paper PDF

C08: Moiré Topography for Detection of Orthopedic Defects
Work done at:
INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA
Kamal SA, Lindseth RE, Periodic Structures, Moiré Patterns and Diffraction Phenomena, Proceedings of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, San Diego, USA, Edited by Chi CH, Loewen EG, O’Bryan III CL, 240, 1980, 293-295;
Reviewed by James C. Wyant, University of Arizona, as part of review of Periodic Structures, …. in Medical Physics 9(2), 1982, 301-302
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Moiré topography was applied for the follow-up of scoliosis patients. The results were, then, compared with
the X rays. A special lamp-and-scale arrangement was utilized for patient alignment. It was suggested that the moiré technique could be used for the detection of all orthopedic defects. Paper PDF


Review of Periodic Structures, Gratings, Moiré Patterns and Diffraction Phenomena, Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Volume 240, C. H. Chi, E. G. Loewen and C. L. O’Bryan III, 335 pp, Bellingham, Washington, 1981. Price $34.00 (SPIE member), $41.00 (nonmember), which appeared in Medical Physics 9(2), 1982, 301-302:

………………………………………………………………….. Unfortunately, the proceedings contain, only, one, two-page paper closely related to medical physics. This paper is entitled “Moiré Topography for the Detection of Orthopedic Defects” by S. A. Kamal and R. E. Lindseth of Indiana University. The authors, briefly, describe the use of moiré topography for the follow-up of scoliosis patients. In their experiments, the authors project a screen made up of 0.5-mm-thick nylon fishing line with a 0.5-mm-thick distance between the adjacent threads onto the patient’s back. When this projected image is viewed through the screen, a moiré pattern is obtained, which gives the contour of the patient’s back. By varying the spacing of the screen lines and the angles of illumination and viewing, the contour interval can be selected. The authors used a contour interval of approximately 0.2 cm. These moiré topographs of children having scoliosis were taken at regular intervals, and the current topographs were compared with the previous moiré topographs to hopefully reduce the number of X rays required. No results were given. ……………………………………………………………………………………………

Reviewed by
James C. Wyant
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona, USA

 

 

 

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