Abstracts of Conference Papers
(2000-2009)


Abstracts of Conference Papers
(1970-1979) (1980-1989) (1990-1999)
(2010-2013) (2014-)


2009 2008 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002


2009


C77: Mathematics of Experimentation

Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI,
University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

Kamal SA, National Conference on
Physics and the World of Today
, in
memory of
Prof. Dr. Muhammed Rafi and
Prof. Dr. Muhammed Razi Hussain,
National Center for
Physics and Depart-
ment of
Physics, University of Karachi,
2009,
abstract#1, pp 9-10 (Prof. Dr.
Muhammed Rafi and Prof. Dr. Muhammed
Razi Hussain memorial lecture)

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This paper started with the history of great scientific experiments, which served to develop the content of a theory (decompose a simple phenomenon, demonstrate underlying unity within apparent variety, find hidden mechanism of a known effect, provide existence evidence), elaborate the formal aspects of method (decide between rival hypotheses, exploit an accident, explore the characteristics of a naturally-occurring process, find the form of a law, inductively, interpret null results, use models to simulate processes) and establish techniques (determine accuracy and care in manipulation, show power and versatility of apparatus), and, then, covered the significance of proper experimental design (using mathematical and statistical tools) in an experimental study. A number of papers submitted in high-impact journals do not get accepted because they lack proper experimental strategy.  The main reasons of inefficient experiments (resulting in excessive cost or time delay in reaching a decision) and poor experiments (resulting in wrong decisions) are bad engineering decisions by setting vague objectives for projects, inappropriate statistics courses taught in the colleges and in the universities, incorrect decisions based on insufficient data and lack of training in the strategy of experimenting.  The paper, also, dealt with the concepts of ‘calibration’ (converting undesired outputs to desired outputs using a functional relationship, preferably linear, between the two sets of outputs — e. g., converting mercury height to temperature in a thermometer, converting angular deviation to ampéré or its fraction in galvanometer), ‘synchronization’ (of watches means at a particular instant the two watches read the same time), ‘sensitivity’ (of a scientific is the reading given by the instrument, when it measures a unit of physical quantity, i. e., current, voltage, charge, length, etc. — increasing the distance of scale from the galvanometer, having lamp and scale arrangement, should increase its sensitivity), ‘reliability’(of equipment is [1 – Probability of breakdown] — a brand name is expensive because one has reliability data available on that product, a ‘guarantee’ covers the breakdown and the replacement costs based on mathematical-statistical models) and ‘tolerance’ (the ability of an instrument to withstand shock, impact, intense radiation, variations of temperature or other distorting or damaging forces) as well as types of errors and ways to deal with them. When one handles raw data similarities are shown in mean (measure of central tendency) and differences in deviation (measure of dispersion). An appropriate measure of dispersion to use is standard deviation, when the data are normally distributed (large sample size). If that is not the case, one should employ mean deviation. ‘Accuracy (A)’ and ‘precision (P)’ were re-defined as (modified after our previous work sR is obtained upon replacing arithmetic mean by the reference value in the expression of s, standard deviation):

 



Worked Example (PDF). It was suggested that Physics Laboratory Course might be used to inculcate creative thinking and critical analysis in students and the course might become the first training ground of an experimental-research physicist, if the experiments encouraged unconventional thinking. The experiments discussed included (a) study of variation of intensity with distance from multiple sources (point, line, laser) using photocell, (b) appearance (disappearance) of Newton’s rings if plano-convex lens was moved away from (towards) the sodium light source (study of fringe movement using edge-based algorithm to be included for advanced undergraduate laboratory) and (c) height and curvature maps of solid objects (cylinder, sphere, cone, wedge) using moiré fringe topography and rasterstereography (edge-based moiré and edge-based raster to quantify infinitesimal movements might be suitable for graduate laboratory). This approach of close coördination between a theorist and an experimentalist, also, sets objectives for the former to model physical phenomena to levels of accuracy compatible with experimental techniques available at that epoch of time. This lecture is dedicated to the loving memory of Prof. Dr. Muhammed Rafi and Prof. Dr. Muhammed Razi Hussain, both of them taught me during my undergraduate studies. Prof. Rafi was my mentor, who motivated me to achieve excellence in research, teaching and admininstration. Prof. Hussain was more of a friend and an associate, who gave me good advice at times of hardship. My life has been deeply touched by both. The topic was chosen by the speaker because both Prof. Rafi and Prof. Hussain were experimental physicists. Abstract PDF

 

C76: Biomedical Applications of 3-D Optical Imaging and Image Processing

Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

Kamal SA, the Thirty-Fourth International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs, Activity III: Biophotonics, Photodynamics and Microscopy, National Center for Physics, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2009

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This paper covered the activities of bioimging group of University of Karachi spanning over a period of 30 years, focusing on non-ionizing, non-invasive, non-contact, photogrammetric techniques — moiré fringe topography and rastersterography, which provided permanent records height (third dimension) and curvature maps, respectively, of the human subject/test object under study (Figures 1 and 2). The work started in 1979 by developing a shadow-type-moiré system for the detection of scoliosis. The author developed methods to determine the Cobb angle from measurements performed on moiré topographs (and its generalization in 3-D, the Asr Angle).  In the context of 3-D-static model of the human spinal column (put forward by author in 1982, complete version published in 1996), profile of spinal column in three dimensions was generated by moiré photograph of back, used to study posture, providing insight into the anatomical basis of back pain. A simultaneous recording from moiré and raster, using selective optical filtering, gave height and curvature maps of spinal column (thus generating 3-D profile of spinal column) in each phase of human gait (developed in 1996), which provided clues to many orthopedic and neurological disorders. A 3-D-dynamic model related spinal column in each phase to the next through edge-based algorithm. Edge-based moiré and edge-based raster allowed studies of changes in height and curvature maps of human back during a gait cycle. In the area of sports-performance analysis, unwanted motion in the sagittal plane, by a gymnast performing on vault, could be monitored using edge-based moiré. In the discipline of speech therapy, movements and curvatures of lips and mouth muscles could be studied using edge-based moiré and raster. In the field of biometrics and security technologies, a multi-level screening system was proposed (in 2008) to establish identity with a high level of sensitivity  (top level) and specificity (bottom level) employing dynamic stereophotogrammetric techniques. These techniques might, also, be utilized to study 3-D structure of macromolecules, significant in biology, by making their metallic replica. Preliminary work was done on the flagella of salmonella typhus at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (New York). Abstract PDF

 

C75: Avoiding Infinities from the Lorentz and the Poincaré Transformations
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, UniversityRoad, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

Kamal SA, the Fourth Symposium on Computational Complexities, Innovations and Solutions (CCIS 2009), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbotabad, NWFP, Pakistan, 2009, p 16 (invited paper) — nominated by Vice Chancellor, University of Karachi
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From the historical point-of-view, this paper gave history of conceptual development of relativity as well as mathematical formulation of Lorentz transformations. Contrary to the popular belief, giving credit of all contributions in special relativity to Albert Einstein, the paper put into perspective the fundamental conceptual contributions of Muslim scientists, e. g., space and time, relative and absolute, long before, Einstein presented his theory. One year before the publication of Einstein’s paper, Poincaré (1904) enunciated the principle of relativity. Also, complete mathematical framework was available through works of Voigt (1887) and Lorentz (1904). Long before that Ibn-é-Sina discussed space and time in his Risala-é-Tabiyyat (Journal of Physics). Nasiruddin Tusi (1238 Iranian Year) say that time ascribes everything and, therefore, something is first and something is last relative to time. Time recording of events (causality) occupies an important place in modern relativity theory. Tusi, further, observes that the entire universe is ascribed by space and in this connection, something is is exposed and something is hidden relative to space. In addition, he comments that space and time are not complete in themselves. In theory of relaticvity space and time are not considered as separate things, but time is considered as a coördinate like space coördinates. Sadruddin Sheerazi, in Asfar-é-Arbaa (Four Journeys), say about the doubt of Fakruddin Raazi (Ouoon-ul-Hikmat — Springs of Knowledge) that Behmenyar mentioned this doubt and then, himself, refuted it. Behmenyar thinks that if the existance of motion is disproved, then it is that motion, which is called 'absolute motion' is not, externally, present.He argues thatabsolute motion has not any such form in the external as that of thinggs, which are stationary. One may notice that even Lorentz adhered to the notion of absolute rest and absolute motion. In his paper, ‘Zur Electrodynamik bewegter Korper’ (On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies), published in 1905, Albert Einstein combined these existing conceptual and mathematical formulations into an integrated and a unified approach, without giving reference to these contributions. Herman Minkowski formulated the relativity theory in terms of a four-dimensional-vector-field formulation. As early as 1911,it was shown that the assumption of existance of an invariant velocity was not necessary for the derivation of Lorentz transformations. Recami and Mignani (1974) generalized special relativity and set the relavant postulates in the form: (i) spacetime is homogeneous and space is isotropic, (ii) principle of relativity — physical laws of mechanics and electromagnetism are required to be covariant, when passing from an inertial frame to another frame in reclinear uniform relative motion and (iii) principle of retarded causality (equivalent to Dirac, Stuckelberg, Feynman and Sudershan reinterpretation principle) — negative-energy particles traveling forward in time do not exist. From only the postulates (i) and (ii) (without intervention of any asumption about the invariant character of the light speed) the remaining principles of special relativity may, actually, be deduced, such as th elinearity of transformations and the existance of an invariant squared speed. The Lorentz transformations are spacetime-vector-field formulations in 4 dimensions, relating coördinates of the primed and the unprimed frames. This paper introduced Scaled-Poincaré Transformations, which avoided infinities that appeared due to denominator vanishing in space and time transformations as velocity approached the velocity of light.Abstract PDF

C74: Gauss’ Law: Choice of the Gaussian Surface and Form of the Electric-Field Vector
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Workshop on Physics, Government College, Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan, 2009 (invited paper)
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Gauss’ law is one of the fundamental laws of electromagnetism, which is, primarily, used to determine the electric-field vector, if the system possesses certain symmetries. This is possible, provided a proper gaussian surface is selected, according to the following criteria:

                                                                    

   a)

Field point (where the electric-field vector needs to be determined) must lie on the gaussian surface.

b)

It should be a closed surface (well-defined interior and exterior) — most common types of gaussian surfaces are sphere, cylinder and box.

c)

It could be a real (coinciding with a physical boundary) or an imaginary surface — for example, spherical surface with center at origin could lie inside a spherical charge distribution of uniform density (imaginary) or the boundary (real).

d)

It should be chosen considering symmetries of the system, as suggested by strong Noether’s theoremfor example, spheres, cylinders or boxes are chosen for spherical, line or surface charge distributions, respectively.

e)

Direction of the electric-field vector should either be tangential or normal to any chosen section of surface — for a uniform line charge distribution, a cylindrical surface is selected as a gaussian surface. The electric-field vector is normal everywhere on the curved surface and tangential on both plane surfaces.

      f)

Magnitude of the electric-field vector should be constant throughout each section of surface, allowing one to take it outside the integral — for example, spherical surface with center at origin is, generally, chosen as gaussian surface for a spherical charge distribution of uniform density. Magnitude of electric field, being a function only of radial coördinate (distance from center of distribution), is constant over this surface.

 

Examples were worked out for computing electric fields generated by (i) an infinite plane charge sheet, with constant surface-charge density and (ii) an infinite line charge, with constant line-charge density, with special emphasis to determine the form of electric-field vector. Similarities and differences of electricity and magnetism as well as electricity and gravitation were highlighted. An expression of Gauss’ law for gravitation was presented and illustrated with computation of gravitational field inside and outside earth. In the context of Ampéré circuital law, line integral of magnetic flux density is to be computed along a closed curve. Criteria for choosing this curve, to most efficiently determine the magnetic field, were, also, be mentioned. Abstract PDF 


C73: The Integrated Educational System: A Pre-University Educational System for the Third Millennium

Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

Kamal SA, the Sindh Educational Conference, the Jamia Millia Government College of Education, Karachi, Pakistan, 2009, abstract#1, p 1 (keynote lecture)

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“The Integrated Educational System” was described, which aimed to
cultivate habits of creative thinking and critical analysis by providing highly-motivated students sufficient depth as well as adequate breadth of the core and the related subjects so that they could make informed, independent decisions under stressful situations. The curriculum integrates various aspects of curriculum development (why to teach – philosophy; what to teach – contents; how to teach – pedagogical techniques) in such way that the student is educated to become a manager of resources of the universe (not a thief) and should know relationship with Allah, self and environment What to learn is the main factor in TRAINING. A trained person “knows” the techniques, which can be repeated under standard situations. How to learn is the essence of EDUCATION. An educated person “knows”, “can explain” and “can apply” the concepts and the techniques. Emphasis is placed on concept building (through debates, discussion sessions, activities) and technique developing (smart approaches to problem solving). Attempts of patchwork from foreign curricula have failed many times, because they do not take into account of the complete picture.  It is, therefore, mandatory to prepare an integrated curriculum.  The curriculum needs to be prepared in the following stages:

                                                                    

   a)

Outline preparation (to link with knowledge obtained in other disciplines and a systematic planning of gradual building-up of concepts and problem-solving skills, the chart contains the level, the concept, the activity/the experiment to reinforce this concept, the reference and the philosophy behind teaching this concept)

b)

Textbook, workbook and lab manual preparation

c)

Video lecture and demonstration series

d)

Interactive software series

e)

Testing and evaluation

 

The curriculum spanning over the entire school period (KG - Intermediate Level) is divided into three disciplines: Sciences, Liberal Arts, Health and Growth. Equal emphasis is given to moral upbringing, intellectual upbringing and physical upbringing. Yearly updated textbooks/workbooks coupled with the latest teaching and evaluation techniques promise to make the students “Muslims” to be able to tackle the challenges of this Information Age. Teachers'-training programs and parents'-education programs reinforcing the concepts and elaborating the pedagogical skills must accompany the curriculum outline. Evaluation and appraisal of this system is based on specially-designed developmental examinations of the child, written examinations, projects, quizzes, parental comments, teachers' suggestions and expert review of videotaped lessons. The curriculum must prepare the students to enter BS programs of top-ranking universities of the world, for example, Cambridge, Harvard, MIT, by being properly interfaced with the university curricula.  Abstract PDF 


2008

C72: The Multi-Stage Lambert Scheme for Steering a Satellite-Launch Vehicle (SLV)
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

Kamal SA, Proceedings of the Twelfth IEEE International Multitopic Conference (IEEE INMIC 2008), Edited by Anis MK, Khan MK, Zaidi SJH, Bahria University, Karachi, Pakistan, 2008, pp 294-300 (invited paper)
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The determination of an orbit, having a specified transfer time (time-of-flight) and connecting two position vectors, frequently referred to as the Lambert problem, is fundamental in astrodynamics. Of the many techniques existing for solving this two-body, two-point, time-constrained orbital boundary-value problem, Gauss' and Lagrange's methods were combined to obtain an elegant algorithm based on Battin's work. This algorithm included
detection of cross-range error. A variable TYPE, introduced in the transfer-time equation, was flipped, to generate the inverse-Lambert scheme.  In this paper, an innovative adaptive scheme was presented, which was
called “the Multi-Stage-Lambert Scheme”. This scheme proposed a design of autopilot, which achieved the pre-decided destination position and velocity vectors for a multi-stage rocket, when each stage was detached from the main vehicle after it burned out, completely.
Paper PDF

C71: Role of Mathematics in the Sports Sciences and Technologies

Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

Kamal SA, the Thirty-Fifth All Pakistan Science Conference, University of Karachi, 2008, abstract # 72, p 75; Karachi University Journal of Sciernce 36(1&2), 2008, 35

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With the competitive and the commercial nature of sports, as a means to promote international coöperation, collaboration and manage conflicts, the nations, having superiority in sciences and technologies, are investing in sports and health sciences and technologies. Mathematics plays a vital role in developing and improving sports activities. This paper discussed 3 areas of application (sports medicine, kinesiology and sports-performance analysis), for which the infrastructure, the facilities and the human resources are available at University of Karachi, and students are engaged in graduate course work and research. In the area of sports medicine, our group has developed indigenous instruments and methods for measurement of height, weight, mid-upper-arm circumference and shoulder width, employing ideas from mathematics, physics and civil engineering, with mathematical and statistical models for reliability of data. To test these instruments and techniques, our team collected
data on over 2500 children between the ages of 5-11 years. Our height-measurement system was adapted by Tawana Pakistan team. Using techniques of numerical analysis, methods were developed to generate detailed growth profile of an athletic child, indicating stunting and wasting/obesity as well as a prediction of adult height and weight, which became very important, when one selected athletes to train them as basketball players, wrestlers or gymnasts. Skeletal examination of school athlete, with a focus on detection of trunk deformities, in particular scoliosis, must be mandatory in the age range 8-11 years. In the Syed Firdous Growth and Imaging Laboratory a light-weight, full body moiré fringe topography set-up, developed locally, is being used to screen for trunk deformities (scoliosis, kyphosis and lordosis). The author has developed methods to determine Cobb angle from measurements performed on moiré topographs (and its generalization in 3-D, the Asr Angle). Heart size and condition were determined, without expensive monitoring equipment, using geometric model of heart put forward by author in 2002. In the area of kinesiology, moiré fringe topography and rasterstereography are used to study postures and gaits of athletes. Moiré fringe topography and rasterstereography are (non-contact and non-invasive) stereophotogrammteric techniques, which provide 3-D information in terms of height and curvature maps of the study surface.  These techniques do not involve ionizing radiations, e.g., X rays, posing no risk to althletes. In the context of 3-D-static model of the human spinal column (put forward by author in 1982, complete version published in 1996), profile of spinal column in three dimensions was generated by moiré photograph of back. A simultaneous recording from moiré and raster gave height and curvature maps of spinal column (thus generating 3-D profile of spinal column) in each phase of human gait (technique developed in 1996). A 3-D-dynamic model related spinal column in each phase to the next through edge-based algorithm. Edge-based moiré and edge-based raster allowed study of changes in height and curvature maps of human back during a gait cycle. In the area of sports-performance analysis, unwanted motion in the sagittal plane by a gymnast performing on vault may be monitored using edge-based moiré. There is a need for planning and implementing dynamical and robust Sports Sciences and Technologies Programs in national universities and sports-training institutions, in place of the traditional Departments of Health and Physical Education. This is the only way for Pakistan to regain glory in hockey and cricket and follow a path leading to excellence in other events, e. g., gymnastics and swimming. Abstract PDF


C70:
From Mathematics to Technology: A Bridge through Physics and Engineering

Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

Kamal SA, Proceedings of the International Conference on Physics and the World of Today, Edited by Jafri MA, Naqvi SM, National Center for Physics and Department of Physics, University of Karachi, 2008, pp 32-39 (invited paper)

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The deaf and the dumb equations of mathematics
are made to speak through physics, which is the formulation
of general laws applying, mainly, inductive logic.
Engineering is modeling from the general laws to create practical systems. Technology is the implementation and the adaptation of a laboratory model to create a working system, which could be mass-produced. The journey from mathematics to technology could be considered as a journey from the abstract to the concrete, mathematics being in books, in the minds of philosophers, physics making contact with outside world, technology becoming the stage, where one enjoys the blessings. The training of mathematicians and physicists should inculcate creative thinking and make them capable to critically analyze problems, taking them from various stages of concept building to equip them with problem-solving skills. Problem solving in the classroom should prepare them to problem solving in the laboratories, and, eventually, problem solving in the industry. This paper illustrates how simple activities, like measurement of height and determination of safe-viewing distance for watching television could reinforce concepts and techniques from various disciplines, including mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, health and safety. Mathematics curricula should give students the practical skills needed by a prospective employer. The paper describes the behavior-based interview format for teachers in mathematics, elaborating technical and performance skills needed for these jobs and examines if the recently-prepared mathematics curricula for BS, MS and PhD by Higher Education Commission, Government of Pakistan are preparing students in this regard and whether they are, properly, interfaced with pre-university curricula. Abstract PDF  Paper PDF


C69: Role of Moiré Fringe Topography and Rasterstereography in the Management of Back Pain

Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

Kamal SA, the First National Conference on Headache and Back Pain, Session III, Karachi, Pakistan, 2008

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Fig. 1. Study of human back using moiré fringe topography (Photo Credit: Shakeel Ahmed Ansari)

 

Fig. 2. Study of human shoulder using rastersterography (Photo Credit: Majeed Ahmed Khan)


Back pain causes reduction in the quality and the quantity of work done by an employee, a housewife or a student. There is a need for non-contact and non-invasive techniques for monitoring causes of back pain, so that efficient and effective management strategies could be initiated. Moiré fringe topography and rasterstereography are photogrammteric techniques, which provide 3-D information in terms of height and curvature maps of the study surface (Figures
1 and 2), the human back in case of back pain, the human shoulder in case of frozen shoulder, etc. These techniques do not involve ionizing radiations, e.g., X rays, and, hence, ideal for monitoring spinal curvatures in children. The author developed methods to determine Cobb angle from measurements performed on moiré topographs (and its generalization in 3-D, the Asr Angle).  In the context of
3-D-static model of the human spinal column (put forward by
author in 1982, complete version published in 1996), profile of spinal column in three dimensions was generated by moiré photograph of back, used to study posture, providing insight into the anatomical basis of back pain. A simultaneous recording from moiré and raster gave height and curvature maps of spinal column (thus generating 3-D profile of spinal column) in each phase of human gait (developed in 1996). A 3-D-dynamic model related spinal column in each phase to the next through edge-based algorithm. Edge-based moiré and edge-based raster allowed study of changes in height and curvature maps of human back during a gait cycle, thus providing clues to the physiological basis of back pain. Abstract PDF

C68: Pattern Recognition using Moiré Fringe Topography and Rasterstereography
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biometrics and Security Technologies (IEEE ISBAST 2008), Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2008, pp 1-7 (invited paper)
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Moiré fringe topography and rasterstereography are 3-D optical imaging techniques, which provide height and curvature maps of the subject or the object under study. These are non-contact and non-invasive techniques, which project moiré and raster grids on the body. The distorted grids contain height and curvature information, which may be recovered using image-processing algorithms. These techniques are being applied to face recognition. The information may be stored in the database and not easily accessible to ordinary citizen. Hence, the chances of fake pictures or fabricated patterns are minimized. Techniques are developed to
project, simultaneously, moiré and raster grids and analyze height and curvature information, separately, using selective optical filtering, which could be used to record height and curvature patterns during a certain action, e. g., uttering a standard word. Edge-based algorithms, combined with moiré contours and raster patterns, allow study of face movements through changing height and curvature maps. A multi-level screening of suspects using these technologies is proposed. Paper PDF


2006

C67: Incorporatng Cross-Range Error in the Lambert Scheme
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

Kamal SA, Proceedings of the Tenth National Aeronautical Conference, Edited by Sheikh SR, Khan AM, College of Aeronautical Engineering, Pakistan Air Force Academy, Risalpur, NWFP, Pakistan, 2006, pp 255-263
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The determination of an orbit, having a specified transfer time (time-of-flight) and connecting two position vectors, frequently referred to as the Lambert problem, is fundamental in astrodynamics. Of the many techniques existing for solving this two-body, two-point, time-constrained orbital boundary-value problem, Gauss' and Lagrange's methods were combined to obtain an elegant algorithm based on Battin's work. This algorithm included detection of cross-range error. A variable
TYPE, introduced in the transfer-time equation, was flipped, to generate the inverse-Lambert scheme. The Lambert scheme could be useful in steering a satellite-launch vehicle (SLV) as well as constructing the control system of a passengercraft traveling in a ballistic trajectory. Paper PDF

C66: The Multi-Stage-Q system and the Inverse-Q System for Possible Application in Satellite-Launch Vehicle (SLV)
 Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Mirza A, Proceedings of the Fourth International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technologies (IBCAST 2005), Volume 3, Control and Simulation, Edited by Hussain SI, Munir A, Kayani J, Samar R, Khan MA, National Center for Physics, Bhurban, KP, Pakistan, 2006, pp 27-33 — Nominated by Vice Chancellor, University of Karachi
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Steering a Satellite-Launch Vehicle (SLV) to strictly follow a predefined trajectory imposes unnecessary load on the control loop, and may, possibly, saturate servos. This may introduce a permanent error in the vehicle-destination position and velocity vectors. Consequently, payload (satellite) would be deployed in a wrong orbit. The orbital-error correction utilizes onboard energy, which reduces the operational life of a satellite. Therefore, it is desirable that SLV is capable of altering its trajectory according to the new operating conditions, in order to achieve the required destination position and velocity vectors. In this paper, an innovative adaptive scheme
was presented, based on “the Multi-Stage-Q System”. Using the control laws expressed in
the elliptic-astrodynamical-coördinate mesh (normal-component-cross-product steering and normal-component-dot-product steering), this scheme proposed a design of autopilot, which achieved the pre-decided destination position and velocity vectors for a multi-stage rocket, when each stage was detached from the main vehicle after it burnt out, completely. In “the Inverse-Q System”, one applied extended-cross-product steeriing to the vector sum of velocity vectors of spacecraft and interceptor. Paper PDF


2005

C65: Vision of the Academic Community of Science and Physics Concepts at High School

Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Ara J,
Kamal SA, Rahim T, Naseeruddin, the International Conference on Physics for World and Society, Celebration of World Year of Physics and the Third Annual Session of Rajasthan Physics Association, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India, 2005
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This paper describes a preliminary research carried out at midpoint-study level to assess vision of science teaching, especially, physics at matric and ‘O’ levels. Based on the findings of an earlier small-scale-interview study, a questionnaire was prepared related to science, in particular, physics concepts. The designed questionnaire was given to a small sample consisting of 50 regular teachers involved at secondary and ‘O’-levels
teaching. Results based on the questionnaire were analyzed and some of the implications presented.
 

C64: Ellipse-Orientation Steering: A Control Law for Spacecrafts and Satellite-Launch Vehicles (SLV)
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Space Science and Challenges of the Twenty-First-Century, ISPA-SUPARCO Collaborative Seminar
(in connection with World Space Week 2005), University of Karachi, Karachi, November 21, 2005 (invited paper)

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The mission design is not complete unless the trajectory calculation includes checks for cross-range error and down-range error.  Ellipse-Orientation Steering, a control law expressed in terms of
the elliptic-astrodynamical-coördinate mesh, states conditions, which must be satisfied for no down-range error and no cross-range error. Mathematical proof was given and protocols for elimination of down-range and cross-range errors described.


C63: Mathematics Research, Teaching and Community Outreach in University of Karachi: Challenges
and Opportunities

Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Informative Mathematical Event, Karachi Mathematical Association and Department of Mathematics, University of Karachi, Karachi, 2005
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This paper explored the challenges involved and the opportunities available for mathematics research, teaching and community outreach at University of Karachi, the largest university in public sector. The research philosophy consists of capitalizing on the strengths of mathematics (the power of generalization and the power of application) to propose smart solutions, which improve man’s quality of life. The pedagogical philosophy is based on nurturing habits of creative thinking and critical analysis in students. An efficient (coverage in allocated time) and an effective (SLOs achieved) curriculum (the contents and the pedagogical techniques) must be supplemented with a comprehensive system of evaluation. The philosophy of community outreach is formulated on the notion of taking into confidence the community (where work is being done), through involvement in decision-making process, planning and implementing various programs as well as educating society about the importance of mathematics as a tool of the tools, having predictive power and as a branch of knowledge, which appreciates and cultivates beauty of nature through the use of numbers.



2004

C62: Mathematics Research and Teaching in University of Karachi: Challenges and Opportunities
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, the Winter Conference in Mathematics, Center for Advanced Studies in Mathematics, LUMS (the Lahore University of Management Sciences), Lahore, Pakistan, 2004, abstract#25, p 18
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This paper dealt with the challenges involved and the opportunities available for mathematics research and teaching in a public-sector setting. The pedagogical philosophy is based on cultivating habits of creative thinking and critical analysis by providing highly motivated students sufficient depth as well as adequate breadth of the core and the related subjects so that they can make informed, independent decisions under stressful situations. The contents as well as the pedagogical techniques constitute an effective curriculum, combined with a system of evaluation to ascertain that learning objectives have been accomplished. The training of a mathematician should take the incumbent from concept building and mapping towards applying the mathematical skills through problem formulation, analysis and suggesting viable solutions. Problem-solving in the classroom must prepare the student to handle industrial problems and, eventually, take up research problems. A teaching program without input from active researchers shall become mundane. Exposure to cutting-edge research is essential for the faculty and the students. The students should be trained to capitalize on the strengths of mathematics, having the power of generalization and the power of application, to formulate and to propose solutions, which enhance man's quality of life.

C61: Strong Noether’s Theorem: Applications in Astrodynamics
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, the Second Symposium on Cosmology, Astrophysics and Relativity, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technologies, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, 2004, p 2
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Noether’s theorem is one of the fundamental theorems relating
conservation laws to space-time symmetries. A stronger version of Noether’s theorem was given and its applications demonstrated in handling two-body problem of planetary motion. Two-body problem was set-up in the elliptic-astrodynamical-coördinate mesh, and Kepler’s equation was shown to be a particular solution of the equation of motion. This formulation yielded 3 constants of motion, instead of the customary 2.
 
C60: Use of Astrodynamical Coördinates to Study-Bounded Keplarian Motion
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, the Fifth International Pure Mathematics Conference, Quaid-é-Azam University and Pakistan Mathematical Society, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2004, abstract#31, p 37 (nominated by Vice Chancellor, University of Karachi)

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This paper reviewed the use of elliptic-astrodynamical-coördinate mesh to study bounded-keplarian motion. The problem reduces to one-parameter problem, since the keplerian orbits are ellipses. Expressions for the hamiltonian and the lagrangian were obtained.  Kepler’s equation was shown to be a particular solution of the equation of motion in this coördinate mesh. This formulation was verified by evaluating known expressions and a few applications were presented.

C59: Industrial and Business Mathematics in the Third Millennium (Concluding Talk)
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, the MIBM Grand Seminar: Industrial and Business Mathematics in the Third Millennium, Department
of Mathematics, University of Karachi, 2004

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This paper reviewed mathematical problems and challenges faced by the industrial, the business and the financial sector and how Program in Industrial and Business Mathematics proposes to tackle them. Mathematics possesses the unique powers of “Generalization” and ”Application”. The teaching methodology based on concepts, mathematical structure, tools, techniques and applications was elaborated.

C58: Mathematical Modeling of Physiological Systems
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, the First World Conference on Twenty-First Century Mathematics, School of Mathematical Sciences, GC University, Lahore, Pakistan, 2004, abstract#67, pp 19-20
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This paper reviewed mathematical models of brain, heart, spinal column and human growth with an emphasis on the mathematical, the physical and the computer science concepts involved. The models of brain were based on generalized theory of driven harmonic oscillator. Study of group structure has provided mathematical definition of brain death. Model of heart was based on standing-wave concept. In addition, static and dynamic models of the human spinal column were presented. The models generate three-dimensional profile of the human spinal column from noncontact, noninvasive, measurements obtained from moiré contours.  Moiré fringe topography is a stereophotogrammetric technique, which gives three-dimensional information of any curved surface. Rasterstereography gives local curvatures of the surface. A combination of these techniques is applied to study posture and gait of child, detect and quantify curvatures of spinal column and aid orthopedic surgeons in operations by providing 3-D maps of bony structures to be operated. A model of child growth was described, which included a method to generate detailed growth profile of a child on the basis of records of height and weight of child, six-month apart as well as heights and weights of biological father and biological mother. Problems and challenges, which could be taken up by twenty-first-century mathematicians, were also discussed.
 

2003                                                                                                                                           

C57: The Training of a Physicist: From Concept Building to Problem-Solving Skills
(Concluding Talk + Recommendations of the Conference)
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, the Second International Conference on Physics Education, Department of Physics, University of Karachi, 2003
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Physics teaching in Pakistani institutions does not produce physicists capable of bringing out new concepts. Neither, they are trained in problem-solving skills. This paper focused on the factors contributing to this state of affairs. Further, it proposed strategies to reverse the situation.
Paper PDF

C56: Incompleteness of Cross-Product Steering and a Mathematical Formulation of Extended-Cross-Product Steering
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Proceedings of the First International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technologies (IBCAST 2002), Volume 1, Advanced Materials, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Control Engineering, Edited by Hoorani HR, Munir A, Samar R, Zahir S, National Center for Physics, Bhurban, KP, Pakistan, 2003, pp 167-177
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Cross-product steering, as presented by Battin, is incomplete and cannot achieve the desired results. A further condition on the magnitude of rate of change of velocity is needed to bring the spacecraft in the desired orbit. The new control law is named as "Extended-Cross-Product Steering", which incorporates this additional condition. Mathematical representation using the elliptic-astrodynamical-coördinate mesh was presented.
Paper PDF

C55: Dot-Product Steering: a New Control Law for Spacecrafts and Satellites
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Proceedings of the First International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technologies (IBCAST 2002), Volume 1, Advanced Materials, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Control Engineering, Edited by Hoorani HR, Munir A, Samar R, Zahir S, National Center for Physics, Bhurban, KP, Pakistan, 2003, pp 178-184
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A control law is formulated, which employs dot-products of velocity and its rate of change. Mathematical representation using the elliptic-astrodynamical-coördinate mesh was presented.
Paper PDF


2002

C54: The Early-Childhood-Integrated-Developmental Examination (ECIDE) for 3-8-Year-Old Children
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA , the Aga Khan University National Sciences Research Symposium: Early Childhood Care and Develop-ment (ECCD 2002), Karachi, 2002, abstract#17, p 32 (poster presentation)
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Objective: To study the developmental milestones achieved during early childhood.
Methods: ECIDE incorporates observation of child's behavior under standardized conditions, with separate
ratings for MAQ (mental ability quotient) and MCQ (motor coördination quotient). Child is scored on (a) behavior, (b) grooming, (c) response to undressing, (d) interest in testing material and surroundings, (e) orientation in space and in time, (f) degree and duration of concentration, (g) distractibility, (h) compliance, (i) fearfulness with apparatus and people, (j) movements, (k) speech, (l) irritability, (m) activity level and (n) ability to interact with peers. Selected segments are given to the NGDS Pilot Project participants, comprising of over 1000 healthy 3-8 years old boys and girls, representing a national sample.
Results: Pakistani children, in general, excel in mental ability as compared to their western counterparts. However, their motor coördination, in particular, gait needs to be improved.
Recommendations/Conclusions:  ECIDE needs to be developed further with a structured, formal-ordered performance routine based on influence and precedence graphs. Once developed fully and baseline scores established, the test may be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of various teaching and child-upbringing approaches. On a cellular level, the test may provide one of many tools to map synaptic connections formed during a learning process.

C53: The NGDS Pilot Project: Aiming at the Future of Pakistan
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Firdous S, Alam SJ, the Aga Khan University National Sciences Research Symposium: Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD 2002), Karachi, 2002, abstract#13, p 26  (presentation CD compiled by the organizers)
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Objective: To pinpoint cases of stunting and wasting in early childhood by obtaining a detailed growth profile
of a child.
Methods: The NGDS (National Growth and Developmental Standards for the Pakistani Children) Pilot Project is being successfully implemented since 1998, to collect data on children, representing a national sample, in a better-than-average health. Standing and sitting heights, shoulder widths and mid-upper-arm-circumferences are measured on over 2000 healthy children. A software is developed, which takes as input heights and weights of biological father and biological mother, as well as those of child at 2 successive occasions, 6 months apart. The output is a detailed growth profile indicating stunting and wasting (if present), optimal and actual body-mass indices, height velocities and rates of weight gain (or loss).
Results: Growth profiles of children in descriptive, tabular, graphical and bar-chart form are to be presented.
Recommendations/Conclusions:  There should be a "National Anthropometry Center", which should receive and process data from sub centers located in each "tehsil"/town. By law, the parents be required to register all live births to these sub centers. All children must receive head-to-toe examination every 6 months including anthropometry during the early childhood years. A healthy child would become a healthy parent, thereby minimizing malnutrition-related diseases.  Only a well-nourished child can take up the challenges of leadership.

C52: The NGDS Pilot Project: A Software to Analyze Growth of a Child (A Telemedicine Perspective)
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Alam SJ, Firdous S, the National Telemedicine Conference Pakistan, Technology Resource Mobilization Unit (TReMU), Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2002, p 2
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Aims and Objectives: 1) To establish Pakistan-based anthropometrical-data library and growth charts.
2) To write softwares, which generate growth profile of a child.
3) To develop inexpensive anthropometry instruments from local resources.
Material & Methods: Protocols were designed after taking into account North American and European ethical and human-rights standards, employing opt-in policy. Standing and sitting heights, shoulder widths, weights and mid-upper-arm circumferences are measured on over 2000 healthy children.
Software Developed Indigenously: A software was developed at the University of Karachi using Microsoft Visual Studio, Version 6.0, which takes as input heights and weights of biological father and biological mother, and those of child at 2 successive occasions, 6 months apart. The output is a detailed growth profile indicating stunting (if present), overweight/underweight conditions, height velocity (comparison with reference height velocity) and rate of weight gain/loss (comparison with reference weight gain). This software is to be made accessible electronically for remote processing of data.
Instrumentation Developed Indigenously: Inexpensive instruments for height measurement as well as moiré frame for 3-D anthropometry, somatotyping and screening of trunk deformities was developed from local resources.
Results: Detailed growth analysis of a child using software developed by the NGDS Team was presented.
Recommendations: Failure-to-grow may be the first indication of a major underlying problem. The NGDS Team recommended growth monitoring and analysis of all 3-10-year-old children using this software.
Paper PDF
 
C51: A Precedence Graph for the Physical Examination of Children
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Alam SJ, Firdous S, the National Telemedicine Conference Pakistan, Technology Resource Mobilization Unit (TReMU), Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2002, p 2
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In the field of pediatrics, physical examination is the most important part of any intervention. Some checks must be performed before the others. Otherwise, an undiscovered condition may affect adversely on a patient's health. Everyone knows that an examination of the resting heart must be performed before treadmill testing. Similarly, hernia check must precede cardiac function testing in the squatting position. "Precedence Graphs" were presented showing the procedures, which must precede the others. Some of the procedures can be performed, concurrently. For example, cardiac function in the standing position, and check for undescended testicles could be performed concurrently. Examples were brought up where "Concurrent Processing" was allowed in the physical examination of children. This software might be a useful training tool for the students and the residents, alike.

C50: An Influence Graph for the Physical Examination of Children
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Alam SJ, Firdous S, the Aga Khan University PGME Conference: Complexity Science and Health Care, Karachi, 2002 (poster presentation)
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In pediatrics, physical examination is the basis to start any intervention. However, some procedures influence certain portions of the examination. For example, running can influence blood pressure and heart rate. "Influence Graphs" were presented showing various procedures influenced by others. Protocols of physical examination need to be designed in such a way that interacting procedures are performed in a laid-down sequence, or during separate sessions. This software might be a useful training tool for students and residents.

C49: The NGDS Pilot Project: Dealing with a Complex System
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Firdous S, Alam SJ, the Aga Khan University PGME Conference: Complexity Science and Health Care, Karachi, 2002 (poster presentation)
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The NGDS (National Growth and Developmental Standards for the Pakistani children) Pilot Project was initiated in 1998 under the directives of Governor Sindh/Chancellor, University of Karachi. Anthropometrical data (standing height, sitting height, weight, mid-upper-arm circumference, shoulder width) have been collected in 4-11 years old children studying in institutions run by the Armed Forces of Pakistan. In addition, the children were screened for anemia, cardiac problems and presence of spinal curvatures. Their posture and gait has also been observed. Those showing signs of trunk deformities, especially scoliosis, are asked to come for a moiré examination. Organization of the NGDS Pilot Project necessitated dealing with a complex system: University of Karachi, Government of Sindh, the Armed Forces of Pakistan, the institutional administration, the institutional health team, families and teachers. Efforts were made to communicate with each at the proper level, making the project relevant to the particular needs of that body/individual. Information regarding educational background and profession of parents was used to devise communication strategies.

C48: The NGDS Pilot Project: Anthropometry of the Pakistani Children
Work done at: UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Firdous S, the Sixteenth International Biennial Conference of Pakistan Pediatric Association, Karachi, 2002, abstract#PO-26, p 127 (poster presentation)
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The NGDS (National Growth and Developmental Standards for the Pakistani Children) Pilot Project aims to establish a national anthropometrical-data library of Pakistani children. Over 2000 healthy children studying in representative institutions run by the Armed Forces of Pakistan are measured using inexpensive anthropometric instruments developed from local resources. Accuracy and precision of these instruments are comparable to those purchased in international market. The measurements obtained were standing and
sitting heights, shoulder widths, weights and mid-upper-arm circumferences on over 2000 healthy children.
Benefits and Usefulness:
1) Health education and awareness
2) Regular monitoring of height and weight
3) Screening for growth retardation, trunk deformities, poor posture and gait
4) Training of school doctors and physical-education instructors

C47: The NGDS Pilot Project: Modeling Growth of the Pakistani Children
Work done at:
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI, University Road, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Kamal SA, Firdous S, the Sixteenth International Biennial Conference of Pakistan Pediatric Association, Karachi, 2002
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The NGDS Pilot Project was initiated in 1998 under the directives of Governor Sindh/Chancellor, University of Karachi. It is a goodwill, public-service endeavor, conducted free of charge for the care and the development of young persons to prepare them mentally, physically and emotionally for rewarding careers in the civil and the military services. Growth of Pakistani children is modeled keeping in view the ICP model of human growth, put forward by Johan Karlberg. According to this model,
height gain is continuous, but not smooth. Phase transitions from "infancy to childhood" and "childhood to puberty" are accompanied by abrupt changes in height velocity. There are 3 periods of rapid growth: (a) after conception, (b) start of “childhood curve”, (c) start of “puberty curve”. Children suffering from severe disease (e. g., diarrhea) during the weaning period may continue on the infancy curve a little longer, before picking up the childhood curve and, hence, end up shorter.


Dear Dr. Kamal,

Thank you for your letter and for your interest in my book. I appreciate your list of corrections and suggestions
(PDF Version).

Richard H. Battin
Adjunct Professor (Aeronautics and Astronautics)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge (USA)
October 25, 1993

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